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Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts , was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in In this work, Rousseau argues that the progression of the sciences and arts has caused the corruption of virtue and morality. This discourse won Rousseau fame and recognition, and it laid much of the philosophical groundwork for a second, longer work, The Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.
Philosophy of art
Philosophy of art , the study of the nature of art, including concepts such as interpretation, representation and expression, and form. It is closely related to aesthetics , the philosophical study of beauty and taste. The philosophy of art is distinguished from art criticism , which is concerned with the analysis and evaluation of particular works of art. It may be primarily analytical , as when a certain passage of poetry is separated into its elements and its meaning or import explained in relation to other passages and other poems in the tradition.
Or it may be primarily evaluative, as when reasons are given for saying that the work of art in question is good or bad, or better or worse than another one. Sometimes it is not a single work of art but an entire class of works in a certain style or genre such as pastoral poems or Baroque music that is being elucidated, and sometimes it is the art of an entire period such as Romantic. But in every case, the aim of art criticism is to achieve an increased understanding or enjoyment of the work or classes of works of art, and its statements are designed to achieve this end.
Art criticism is particularly helpful and often necessary for works of art that are more than usually difficult, such that persons not already familiar with the artist or the genre or the period would be unable to adequately understand or enjoy the work if left to themselves. The critic says that a given work of music is expressive, but the philosopher of art asks what is meant by saying that a work of art is expressive and how one determines whether it is.
In speaking and writing about art, critics presuppose that they are dealing with clear concepts, the attainment of which is the task of the philosopher of art. The task of the philosopher of art is not to heighten understanding and appreciation of works of art but to provide conceptual foundations for the critic by 1 examining the basic concepts that underlie the activities of critics and enable them to speak and write more intelligibly about the arts and by 2 arriving at true conclusions about art, aesthetic value, expression, and the other concepts that critics employ.
Upon what do philosophers of art direct their attention? The theorists who have attempted to answer this question are many, and their answers differ greatly. But there is one feature that virtually all of them have in common: a work of art is a human-made thing, an artifact , as distinguished from an object in nature. A sunset may be beautiful, but it is not a work of art. A piece of driftwood may have aesthetic qualities, but it is not a work of art since it was not made by a human.
On the other hand, a piece of wood that has been carved to look like driftwood is not an object of nature but of art, even though the appearance of the two may be exactly the same. Nevertheless, according to the simplest and widest definition, art is anything that is human-made. Within the scope of this definition, not only paintings and sculptures but also buildings, furniture, automobiles, cities, and garbage dumps are all works of art: every change that human activity has wrought upon the face of nature is art, be it good or bad, beautiful or ugly, beneficial or destructive.
The ordinary usage of the term is clearly less wide. When works of art are spoken of in daily life, the intention is to denote a much narrower range of objects—namely, those responded to aesthetically. Among the things in this narrower range, a distinction, although not a precise one, is made between fine and useful art.
Fine art consists of those works designed to produce an aesthetic response or that regardless of design function as objects of aesthetic appreciation such as paintings, sculptures, poems, musical compositions —those human-made things that are enjoyed for their own sake rather than as means to something else.
Useful art has both an aesthetic and a utilitarian dimension: automobiles, glass tumblers, woven baskets, desk lamps, and a host of other handmade or manufactured objects have a primarily useful function and are made for that purpose, but they also have an aesthetic dimension: they can be enjoyed as objects of beauty, so much so that people often buy one brand of car rather than another for aesthetic reasons even more than for mechanical reasons of which they may know nothing.
A borderline case is architecture : many buildings are useful objects the aesthetic function of which is marginal, and other buildings are primarily objects of beauty the utility of which is incidental or no longer existent Greek temples were once places of worship, but today their value is entirely aesthetic.
The test in practice is not how they were intended by their creators, but how they function in present-day experience. Many great works of painting and sculpture , for example, were created to glorify a deity and not, insofar as can be ascertained , for an aesthetic purpose to be enjoyed simply in the contemplation of them for their own sake. This aesthetic sense of the word art , whether applied to fine art or useful art, is the one most employed by the majority of critics and philosophers of art today.
There are two other senses of art , however, that are still narrower, and, to avoid confusion, their use should be noted: 1 Sometimes the term art is restricted to the visual arts alone or to some of the visual arts.
But as philosophers of art use the term and as it is used here , art is not limited to visual art; music and drama and poetry are as much arts as are painting, sculpture, and architecture. The viewer, then, is not really denying that the work in question is art it is a human-made object presented to be contemplated for its own sake but only that it is worthwhile. Countless proffered definitions of art are not definitions at all but are theories about the nature of art that presuppose that the ability to identify certain things in the world as works of art already exists.
Most of them are highly unsatisfactory even as theories. Is it always concerned with reality how is music concerned with reality, for example? It would seem likely that music is the creation of something, namely, a new set of tonal relationships, but not that it is the re-creation of anything at all.
And so on. All that seems to be required for identifying something as a work of art in the wide sense is that it be not a natural object but something made or transformed by a human being , and all that is required for identifying it as art not as good art but as art in the narrower sense is that it function aesthetically in human experience, either wholly fine art or in part useful art ; it is not even necessary, as has been shown, that it be intended by its creator to function in this way.
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712—1778)
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The 50 Most Influential Living Philosophers
Political philosophy , branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion. The meaning of the term political is itself one of the major problems of political philosophy. Broadly, however, one may characterize as political all those practices and institutions that are concerned with government. The central problem of political philosophy is how to deploy or limit public power so as to maintain the survival and enhance the quality of human life.
The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It is therefore unsurprising that philosophers have sometimes turned their attention to efforts to examine history itself and the nature of historical knowledge. In a sense, this question is best answered on the basis of a careful reading of some good historians.
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Ответ получили через двенадцать минут. Все десять присутствовавших при этом человек в напряженном ожидании молчали, когда вдруг заработавший принтер выдал им открытый текст: шифр был взломан. ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрыл ключ, состоявший из шестидесяти четырех знаков, за десять с небольшим минут, в два миллиона раз быстрее, чем если бы для этого использовался второй по мощности компьютер АНБ. Тогда бы время, необходимое для дешифровки, составило двадцать лет. Производственное управление АНБ под руководством заместителя оперативного директора коммандера Тревора Дж.
- Я не думал, что он мне поверил. Он был так груб - словно заранее решил, что я лгу. Но я рассказал все, как. Точность - мое правило. - И где же это кольцо? - гнул свое Беккер.
В проломе стены возникла фигура Стратмора. Он был бледен и еле дышал. Увидев тело Хейла, Стратмор вздрогнул от ужаса. - О Боже! - воскликнул. - Что случилось. ГЛАВА 93 Причастие. Халохот сразу же увидел Беккера: нельзя было не заметить пиджак защитного цвета да еще с кровавым пятном на боку.
Он набрал в легкие воздуха. - Вы хотите приделать к Цифровой крепости черный ход. Его слова встретило гробовое молчание.
Тогда откуда же пришла команда на ручное отключение. - рассердилась. Недовольно поморщившись, Сьюзан закрыла окно экранного замка, но в ту долю секунды, когда оно исчезало с экрана, она заметила нечто необычное. Снова открыв окно, Сьюзан изучила содержащуюся в нем информацию. Какая-то бессмыслица.
Это был не первый его звонок, но ответ оставался неизменным: - Ты имеешь в виду Совет национальной безопасности. Беккер еще раз просмотрел сообщение. - Нет.
В чем дело? - спросил Фонтейн. - Вы что-то нашли. - Вроде. - У Соши был голос провинившегося ребенка. - Помните, я сказала, что на Нагасаки сбросили плутониевую бомбу.
Трудно поверить, что такие ножки носят 170 баллов IQ.