Theory And Practice Of Family Therapy And Counseling PdfBy Sara B. In and pdf 27.03.2021 at 19:18 3 min read
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Family therapy is a branch of psychotherapy that is meant to help initiate change and nurture development in intimate relationships between family members and couples. The average number of family therapy sessions is but the number of sessions truly depends on the situation the family or group is involved with.
- Theory and Practice of Family Therapy and Counseling
- Family Art Therapy: Foundations of Theory and Practice (Family Therapy and Counseling)
- Types of Family Therapy
- Introduction to the Eight Concepts
Mental health professionals in India have always involved families in therapy. However, formal involvement of families occurred about one to two decades after this therapeutic modality was started in the West by Ackerman. Mental illnesses afflict individuals and their families too.
Theory and Practice of Family Therapy and Counseling
Mental health professionals in India have always involved families in therapy. However, formal involvement of families occurred about one to two decades after this therapeutic modality was started in the West by Ackerman. Mental illnesses afflict individuals and their families too. Families are generally unaware and lack information about mental illnesses and how to deal with them and in turn, may end up maintaining or perpetuating the illness too.
Vidyasagar is credited to be the father of Family Therapy in India though he wrote sparingly of his work involving families at the Amritsar Mental Hospital.
Working with families involves education, counseling, and coping skills with families of different psychiatric disorders. Various interventions exist for different disorders such as depression, psychoses, child, and adolescent related problems and alcohol use disorders. Such families require psychoeducation about the illness in question, and in addition, will require information about how to deal with the index person with the psychiatric illness. Psychoeducation involves giving basic information about the illness, its course, causes, treatment, and prognosis.
These basic informative sessions can last from two to six sessions depending on the time available with clients and their families. Simple interventions may include dealing with parent-adolescent conflict at home, where brief counseling to both parties about the expectations of each other and facilitating direct and open communication is required. Additional family interventions may cover specific aspects such as future plans, job prospects, medication supervision, marriage and pregnancy in women , behavioral management, improving communication, and so on.
These family interventions offering specific information may also last anywhere between 2 and 6 sessions depending on the client's time. For example, explaining the family about the marriage prospects of an individual with a psychiatric illness can be considered a part of psychoeducation too, but specific information about marriage and related concerns require separate handling.
At any given time, families may require specific focus and feedback about issues such issues. Family therapy is a structured form of psychotherapy that seeks to reduce distress and conflict by improving the systems of interactions between family members. It is an ideal counseling method for helping family members adjust to an immediate family member struggling with an addiction, medical issue, or mental health diagnosis.
Specifically, family therapists are relational therapists: They are generally more interested in what goes on between the individuals rather than within one or more individuals. Depending on the conflicts at issue and the progress of therapy to date, a therapist may focus on analyzing specific previous instances of conflict, as by reviewing a past incident and suggesting alternative ways family members might have responded to one another during it, or instead proceed directly to addressing the sources of conflict at a more abstract level, as by pointing out patterns of interaction that the family might not have noticed.
Some families may perceive cause-effect analyses as attempts to allocate blame to one or more individuals, with the effect that for many families, a focus on causation is of little or no clinical utility. It is important to note that a circular way of problem evaluation is used, especially in systemic therapies, as opposed to a linear route. Using this method, families can be helped by finding patterns of behavior, what the causes are, and what can be done to better their situation.
Family therapy offers families a way to develop or maintain a healthy and functional family. Patients and families with more difficult and intractable problems such as poor prognosis schizophrenia, conduct and personality disorder, chronic neurotic conditions require family interventions and therapy. The systemic framework approach offers advanced family therapy for such families.
These sessions may last anywhere from eight sessions up to 20 or more on occasions [ Table 1 ]. Usual goals of family therapy are improving the communication, solving family problems, understanding and handling special family situations, and creating a better functioning home environment.
In addition, it also involves:. Exploring the interactional dynamics of the family and its relationship to psychopathology. Restructuring the maladaptive interactional family styles including improving communication.
The usual reasons for referral are mentioned below. However, it may be possible that sometimes the reasons identified initially may be just a pointer to many other lurking problems within the family that may get discovered eventually during later assessments. Whether one is a young student, or a seasoned individual therapist, dealing with families can be intimidating at times but also very rewarding if one knows how to deal with them.
We have outlined certain challenges that one faces while dealing with families, especially when one is beginning. This can happen with beginner therapists as they are overeager and keen to help and offer suggestions straight away.
If the therapist starts dominating the interaction by talking, advising, suggesting, commenting, questioning, and interpreting at the beginning itself, the family falls silent.
It is advisable to probe with open-ended questions initially to understand the family. It is advisable for the therapist to have control over the sessions. Especially in crisis situations, when the family fails to function as a unit, the therapist should take control of the session and set certain conditions which in his professional judgment, maximize the chances for success.
A common problem for the beginning therapist is to become overly involved with the family. However, he may realize this and try to panic and withdraw when he can become distant and cold.
Rather, one should gently try to join in with the family earning their true respect and trust before heading to build rapport. Many families believe that their problem is because of the index patient, whereas it may seem a tactical error to focus on this person initially. In doing so, it may essentially agree to the family's hypothesis that their problem is arising out of this person. It is preferable, at the outset to inform the family that the problem may lie with the family especially when referrals are made for family therapies involving multiple members , and not necessarily with any one individual.
Many therapeutic efforts fail because important family members are not included in the sessions. It is advisable to find out initially who are the key members involved and who should be attending the sessions. Sometimes, involving all members initially and then advising them to return to therapy as and when the need arises is recommended.
Even though one has involved all members of the family in the sessions, not all of them may be engaged during the sessions. Sometimes, the therapist's own transference may hold back a member of the family in the sessions.
It may be easy to fall into the trap of taking one member's side during sessions leaving the other party doubting the fairness and judgment of the therapist.
Therapists should be aware of this effect and try to be neutral as possible yet take into confidence each member attending the sessions. Hence, therapists must be able to read this and try to challenge them, listen to microchallenges within the family, must be ready to move in and out from one family member to another, without fixing to one member.
Many families attempt to reduce tension by communicating with therapist outside the session, and beginning therapist are particularly susceptible for such ploys. Therapists must refrain from such encounters and suggest discussing these issues openly during the sessions. Of course, rarely, there may be sensitive or very personal information that one may want to discuss in person that may be permissible. It is easy for family therapists to ignore previous therapists.
The family therapist's ignorance of the effects of previous therapy can serious hamper the work. By discussing the previous therapist helps the new therapist to understand the problem easily and could save time also.
If transference involves the therapist in family structure, the therapist's dependency can overinvolved him in the family's style and tone of interaction.
A depressed family causes both: Therapist to relate seriously and sadly. A hostile family may cause the therapist to relate in an attacking manner.
The family therapist establishes a useful rapport: Empathy and communication among the family members and between them and himself. The therapist uses the rapport to evoke the expression of major conflicts and ways of coping. The therapist clarifies conflict by dissolving barriers, confusions, and misunderstandings.
Gradually, the therapist attempts to bring to the family to a mutual and more accurate understanding of what is wrong. The therapist fulfills in part the role of true parent figure, a controller of danger, and a source of emotional support and satisfaction-supplying elements that the family needs but lacks. He introduces more appropriate attitudes, emotions, and images of family relations than the family has ever had. The therapist works toward penetrating entering into and undermining resistances and reducing the intensity of shared currents of conflict, guilt, and fear.
He accomplishes these aims mainly using confrontation and interpretation. In carrying out these functions, the family therapist plays a wide range of roles, as:. Patients and their families are usually referred to as some family problem has been identified.
The therapist may be accustomed to the usual one-on-one therapeutic situation involving a patient but may be puzzled in his approach by the presence of many family members and with a lot of information. A few guidelines are similar to the approaches followed while conducting individual therapy. The guidelines for conducting family interventions are given in Table 2.
At the time of the intake, the therapist reviews all the available information in the family from the case file and the referring clinicians. This intake session lasts for 20—30 min and is held with all the available family members. The aim of the intake session is to briefly understand the family's perception of their problem, their motivation and need to undergo family intervention and the therapist assessments of suitability for family therapy.
Once this is determined the nature and modality of the therapy is explained to the family and an informal contract is made about modalities and roles of therapist and the family members. The assessment of different aspects of family functioning and interactions must typically take about 3—5 sessions with the whole family, each session must last approximately 45 min to an hour.
Different therapists may want to take assessments in different ways depending on their style. Mentioned below are a few tasks which are recommended for the therapist to perform. The three-generation genogram is constructed diagrammatically listing out the index patient's generation and two more related generations, for example, patients and grandparents in an adolescent client or parents and children in a middle-aged client.
The ages and composition of the members are recorded, and the transgenerational family patterns and interactions are looked at to understand the family from a longitudinal and epigenetic perspective. The therapist also familiarizes himself with any family dynamics prior to consultation. This gives a broad background to understand the situation the family is dealing with now. The life cycle of the index family is explored next. The functions of the family and specific roles of different members are delineated in each of the stages of the family life cycle.
Care is taken to see how the family has coped with problems and the process of transition from one stage to another. If children are also part of the family, their discipline and parenting styles are explored e.
Problem Solving: Many therapists look at this aspect of the family to see how cohesive or adaptable the family has been. Usually, the family members are asked to describe some stress that the family has faced, i. The therapist then proceeds to get a description of how the family coped with this problem. The crisis and the consequent events are examined closely to look for patterns that emerge. The family function or dysfunction is heightened when there is a crisis situation and the therapist look at patterns rather than the content described.
The same inquiry is possible using the technique of enactment[ 4 ]. The Structural Map: Once the inquiry is over, the therapist draws the structural map, which is a diagrammatic representation of the family system, showing the different subsystems, its boundaries, power structure and relationships between people.
Diagrammatic notions used in structural therapy or Bowenian therapy are used to denote relationships normal, conflictual, or distant and subsystem boundaries, in different triadic relationships. This can also be done on a timeline to show changes in relationships in different life cycle stages and influences from different life events.
Family Art Therapy: Foundations of Theory and Practice (Family Therapy and Counseling)
It is the nature of a family that its members are intensely connected emotionally. Often people feel distant or disconnected from their families, but this is more feeling than fact. This connectedness and reactivity make the functioning of family members interdependent. Families differ somewhat in their degree of interdependence, but it is always present to some degree. This emotional interdependence presumably evolved to promote the cohesiveness and cooperation families require to protect, shelter, and feed their members. Heightened tension, however, can intensify these processes that promote unity and teamwork, and this can lead to problems. When family members get anxious, their anxiety can escalate by spreading infectiously among them.
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Types of Family Therapy
Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence. Determining whether one counseling approach works better than another is difficult, because there are so many variables to consider in the counseling process. For example, if we try to compare the effectiveness of two counselors applying the same theoretical model, there can be major differences in the counseling outcome due to differences in the clients' histories and situations, differences in the counselors' communication styles, and even differences in client and counselor mood on the day of the comparison.
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Family therapy , also referred to as couple and family therapy , marriage and family therapy , family systems therapy , and family counseling , is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. It tends to view change in terms of the systems of interaction between family members. The different schools of family therapy have in common a belief that, regardless of the origin of the problem, and regardless of whether the clients consider it an "individual" or "family" issue, involving families in solutions often benefits clients. This involvement of families is commonly accomplished by their direct participation in the therapy session. The skills of the family therapist thus include the ability to influence conversations in a way that catalyses the strengths, wisdom, and support of the wider system.
Introduction and overview -- Ch. The genograms of family therapy -- Ch.
Introduction to the Eight Concepts
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This volume applies critical social theories to family therapy practice, using sociopolitical context for a clearer focus on the power dynamics of couple and family relationships. Its decolonizing approach to therapy is shown countering the pervasive cultural themes that grant privilege to specific groups over others, feeding unequal and oppressive relationships that bring families and couples to treatment. Therapy is shown here as a layered and nuanced process, with practitioners developing an ethical human rights perspective toward their work as they aid clients in negotiating for greater justice and equity in their relationships.
Search this site. Contact Us. Balintawak Eskrima By Sam L. Buot Sr. Feel Younger - Now! Great for Adlerians on Alderaan By The human I accidentally came upon this book as I tried to navigate the complexity of the Organa familiy of Alder Product Description A model for successful integration of multiple points of view, James R.
Handbook of Marriage and the Family pp Cite as. Histories of the intertwined fields of marriage and family therapy have appeared during the past 2 decades e. Kaslow, , ; Thomas, Elaborating upon an earlier version of this material F. Kaslow, , this chapter concentrates on developments in the past decade, a time during which the convergence of the marital and family therapy fields has been accepted.
PDF | Family therapy is a relatively new form of treatment in child and theory-a number of models and methods of family therapy practice The structural family therapist engages with the family system and then sets out to.
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