Pdf Dicks Encyclopedia Of Practical Receipts And ProcessBy Niceas M. In and pdf 26.03.2021 at 11:24 10 min read
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- Encyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Processes: Containing Over 6400 ...
- Encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes
- Encyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Processes - E-bog
Encyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Processes: Containing Over 6400 ...
International Hazard. Not logged in [ Login - Register ]. Back to:. Printable Version. Pyrogallol and iron-gall ink My husband is a huge fountain-pen enthusiast, and recently he's started to get interested in the history and chemistry of ink. Iron-gall ink is pretty easy to make from tannin obtained from a brewery supply , ferrous sulfate obtained as the heptahydrate, from the garden store , HCl and phenol, but it has a minor drawback: although the ink reacts with the cellulose in paper to produce a very dark black line, when it goes onto the paper it is nearly clear and thus difficult to see.
This problem can be solved by adding a dye prussian blue is apparently rather common, thus "blue-black" permanent fountain pen ink. I synthesized several mL batches of iron-gall ink earlier this evening, and he tried saturating them with various water-soluble dyes, but we haven't been happy with any of the ones we had; some precipitated out probably due to the acidity of the ink , some didn't have much effect on the colour on paper, some just smelled too nasty to use.
We're going to look for some more ink-friendly dyes, but I want to try a couple of other possibilities first. PDF , which describes two ways to produce ink that writes black initially: calcination of the ferrous sulfate, or conversion of some of the gallic acid in the tannin to pyrogallic acid.
I don't want to go the calcination route, because ink produced in this way doesn't react as strongly with the cellulose in the paper and thus can be erased more easily.
So, pyrogallic acid sounds like the way to go. Later this week I plan to hydrolyze some tannic acid well, tannin really to gallic acid with NaOH, then convert the gallic acid to pyrogallic acid. However, just for grins I dropped some tannin in a test tube and heated it with a butane torch. The tan powder turned lighter a sort of yellowish beige, not quite white , then became darker and started to bubble.
A white odorless vapor was produced. I didn't have a thermometer handy, but I'm pretty confident that I got at least some of the tannin up past the melting point of gallic acid K.
Lifting some of the molten mass with a glass rod stretched the mass out like taffy, and it solidified quickly on cooling, with a glassy look after it had cooled. I'm fairly certain that I've turned at least some of the tannin into plain old carbon, but I'm also curious what the likelihood is that I've also made some pyrogallol.
The brown glassy substance does dissolve in water, leaving some particulate matter which I assume is carbon, so I plan on trying to heat up a larger sample and making ink with it filtering first to remove particulates, since that's not the point.
More generally, when one is decarboxylating via heat, how do you compute the target temperature? It's been well over a decade since my last chemistry class, and I'm not sure that subject ever came up. Finally -- I have no interest in methylating the stuff, this is for ink.
The carboxylic group in tannin is fairly well tied up as esters, one structure is that in the attached image and you'll find other variants. I don't think that it will decarboxylate very well in that form. Below is a bit from another old book of formula or receipts, which might be useful. Gallic acid is much less soluble in water than tannic and in part crystalises out, after chilling the solution gallic acid was collected on a filter.
Note that this is an old book from the USA, all temperatures are in Fahrenheit. Also, nowadays there are better ways to do the heating than a zinc chloride bath. Also available from Amazon: Dick's encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes.
Part 15 To Obtain Gallic Acid from Tannin To Obtain Gallic Acid from Tannin. Add a strong aqueous solution of tannic acid tannin to sulphuric acid, as long as a precipitate falls; collect the powder, wash, and dissolve it by the aid of heat in diluted sulphuric acid; boil for a few minutes, cool, and collect the crystals of gallic acid which will form in considerable quantity.
Gallic acid does not affect solutions of gelatine, the protosalts of iron, or the salts of the alkaloids; but it produces a black precipitate with the sesquisalts of iron, which disappears when the liquid is heated. Pyrogallic Acid Pyrogallic Acid. When quite pure, it has no action on litmus paper. It is used in photography. A solution of the crude acid mixed with a little alcohol imparts a fine brown color to the hair, but stains the skin also.
To Obtain Pyrogallic Acid To Obtain Pyrogallic Acid. Tannic Acid, also called Tannin Tannic Acid, also called Tannin. Pure tannic acid is solid, uncrystallizable, white, or slightly yellow; strongly astringent, but without bitterness; very soluble in water, less so in alcohol and ether, and insoluble in fixed or volatile oils.
Its solution reddens litmus. With the bases tannic acid forms Among the incompatibles of tannin are the alkaloids of opium, and it is altogether unavoidable that if solutions of them are brought together, a precipitate will form of tannates; also, if the preparation of opium contain saffron, as in acetum opii and Sydenham's laudanum, this will cause a further precipitation of the extractive of saffron.
See No. To Obtain Tannic Acid To Obtain Tannic Acid. Expose nut-gall in fine powder to a damp atmosphere for 24 hours, then mix it with sufficient ether, previously washed with water, to form a soft paste. Set this aside, closely covered, for 6 hours; then envelope it quickly in a close canvas cloth, and obtain the liquid portion by pressing powerfully between tinned plates.
Mix the liquids, and evaporate spontaneously to a syrupy consistence; then spread it on glass or tinned plates, and dry quickly in a drying closet. Put the dry residue in a well-stopped bottle. I had read on another thread here that base hydrolysis is preferable to acid hydrolysis for tannic acid because acids not sure if this is any Lewis acid or just Bronsted-Lowry acids tend to strip off the -OH groups, but the test for gallic vs.
I'll report back once I've tested it. And yeah, I wouldn't expect the pentagalloyl ester to decarboxylate on its own; the original preparation calls for roasting the gallnuts before soaking them to extract the useful acids, so I assume there's some free gallic acid in the galls.
I have no idea what the actual composition of my tannin is; it might be all pentagalloyl glucose, or there might be some ellagic acid esters in there, hard to say. I'll try saturating an aqueous solution of tannin as well.
Encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes
Acton, Eliza. Modern Cookery in all its Branches. Philadelphia: J. Potter, Adams, Abby Merrill. Sense in the Kitchen: a Guide to Economical Cooking. Syracuse, N.
International Hazard. Not logged in [ Login - Register ]. Back to:. Printable Version. Pyrogallol and iron-gall ink My husband is a huge fountain-pen enthusiast, and recently he's started to get interested in the history and chemistry of ink. Iron-gall ink is pretty easy to make from tannin obtained from a brewery supply , ferrous sulfate obtained as the heptahydrate, from the garden store , HCl and phenol, but it has a minor drawback: although the ink reacts with the cellulose in paper to produce a very dark black line, when it goes onto the paper it is nearly clear and thus difficult to see. This problem can be solved by adding a dye prussian blue is apparently rather common, thus "blue-black" permanent fountain pen ink.
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Encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes by William B. Dick, unknown edition.
Encyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Processes - E-bog
Written in English. Also available from Amazon: Dick's encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes. Preservation of Leather. Part 3. To Preserve and Clean Harness.
Dicks Encyclopedia of Practical Receipts and Processes or Containing over receipts; embracing thorough information, in plain language, applicable to almost every possible industrial and domestic requirement. Internet archive bookreaderencyclopedia of practical receipts and processes. Author s : dick,william brisbane title s : encyclopedia of practical receipts and processes.
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Am meisten angefragte Begriffe
Его визуальный монитор - дисплей на жидких кристаллах - был вмонтирован в левую линзу очков. Монокль явился провозвестником новой эры персональных компьютеров: благодаря ему пользователь имел возможность просматривать поступающую информацию и одновременно контактировать с окружающим миром. Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации. Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах. Контакты соединялись в определенной последовательности, которую компьютер затем расшифровывал и переводил на нормальный английский. Киллер щелкнул миниатюрным тумблером, и очки превратились в дисплей.
Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло. PFEESESNRETMMFHAIRWEOOIGMEENNRMА ENETSHASDCNSIIAAIEERBRNKFBLELODI Джабба взорвался: - Довольно. Игра закончена. Червь ползет с удвоенной скоростью. У нас осталось всего восемь минут. Мы ищем число, а не произвольный набор букв. - Четыре умножить на шестнадцать, - спокойно сказал Дэвид.
Какая разница? - подумал. - Я должен выполнять свои обязанности.
Что. - Больше. Панк да и. Панк да и .
Но сообщать имена жертв… с точки зрения человека в очках в металлической оправе, это было признаком особой элегантности стиля. Его пальцы снова задвигались, приводя в действие сотовый модем, и перед глазами появилось: СООБЩЕНИЕ ОТПРАВЛЕНО ГЛАВА 26 Сидя на скамейке напротив городской больницы, Беккер думал о том, что делать .