Language Learning Styles And Strategies PdfBy Г‰tienne B. In and pdf 25.03.2021 at 07:37 10 min read
File Name: language learning styles and strategies .zip
- Learning Strategies & Learning Styles
- The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners
- Learning Styles & Strategies
- Language learning strategies
Learning Strategies & Learning Styles
Available online at www. State College Blvd. Subjects for the study were one hundred and ten undergraduate university students in Hong Kong. Subjects completed an online questionnaire through which data were collected on their learning strategy preferences as well as patterns of language practice and use.
The study revealed key differences in learning strategy preferences, learning styles and patterns of language use. Implications of the study are presented and discussed.
All rights reserved. Keywords: Learning styles; Learning strategies; Effective language learner; Less effective language learner; Tertiary 1. Introduction and overview Over the last twenty years, there has been growing interest in incorporating a focus on learning strategies and learning-how-to-learn into language curricula. There is a general belief that such a focus helps students become more effective learners and facilitates the activation of a learner-centered philosophy Nunan, , a,b. It is also believed that learners who have developed skills in learning-how-to-learn will be better able to exploit classroom learning opportunities effectively, and will be more adequately equipped to continue with language learning outside of the classroom.
Increasingly, the focus of university level instruction is on learning-how-to-learn rather than mastery of bodies of factual information. It is about learning by doing. It is about looking at issues in various ways and developing capacities, especially the ability to dig below the surface to reach the truth. That is why our goal is to teach students to learn how to learn rather than merely passing information to them.
E-mail addresses: lillianwong hku. Wong , david. Wong, D. These include the relationship between learning strategy preferences and other learner characteristics such as educational level, ethnic background and first language; the issue of whether effective learners share certain style and strategy preferences; whether strategies can be explicitly taught, and, if so, whether strategy training actually makes a difference to second language acquisition; and whether effective learners share attitudes towards, and patterns of language practice and use outside of the classroom.
Background We have divided our literature review into two sections. Learning styles and strategies Since the mid s, there has been substantial growth in the literature on learning styles e. In these studies, learning styles and strategies have been variously described and defined. These styles appear to be relatively stable and will be deployed by individuals regardless of the subject being studied or the skill being mastered. There are numerous ways of characterizing styles.
Christison distinguishes between cognitive style field dependent versus field independent, analytic versus global, reflective versus impulsive ; sensory style visual versus auditory versus tactile versus kinesthetic and personality styles tolerance of ambiguity, right brain versus left brain dominance.
In relation to language learning styles, Willing identified four major styles: communicative, analytical, authority-oriented and concrete.
Communicative: These learners were defined by the following learning strategies: they like to learn by watching, listening to native speakers, talking to friends in English, watching television in English, using English out of class, learning new words by hearing them, and learning by conversation. Analytical: These learners like studying grammar, studying English books and newspapers, studying alone, finding their own mistakes, and working on problems set by the teacher.
Authority-oriented: The learners prefer the teacher to explain everything, having their own textbook, writing everything in a notebook, studying grammar, learning by reading, and learning new words by seeing them.
Concrete: These learners tend to like games, pictures, film, video, using cassettes, talking in pairs, and practicing English outside class. Every task and exercise will be underpinned by at least one strategy, although in most classrooms learners are unaware of these strategies. One of the hypotheses being tested by learning strategy researchers is that awareness and deployment of strategies will lead to more effective language acquisition Macaro, Oxford a draws a distinction between direct and indirect strategies.
Direct strategies include memorizing, analyzing, reasoning and guessing intelligently. These are specific procedures that learners can use to improve their language skills.
Learning styles are general approaches to language learning, while learning strategies are specific ways to deal with language tasks in particular contexts Cohen, ; Oxford, Each of the five style contrasts constitutes a comparative style continuum. It is important for learners to identify these learning styles and recognize their strengths and thus expand their learning potential.
Oxford notes that once learners are aware of their own learning styles, it enables them to adapt their learning strategies to suit different learning tasks in particular contexts. Learners can take advantages of their learning styles by matching learning strategies with their styles; similarly, learners can compensate for the disadvantages of their learning styles to balance their learning by adjusting learning strategies.
Incorporating a learning-how-to-learn dimension into language pedagogy has been argued for in a range of pedagogical contexts and situations. In his overview of research into learning-how-to-learn, Nunan e2 , for example, argues that knowledge of strategies is important, because the greater awareness you have of what you are doing, if you are conscious of the processes underlying the learning that you are involved in, then learning will be more effective. Research shows that learners who are taught the strategies underlying their learning are more highly motivated than those who are not.
Research has also shown that not all learners automatically know which strategies work best for them. For this reason, explicit strategy training, coupled with thinking about how one goes about learning and experimenting with different strategies, can lead to more effective learning.
Cohen , and Wenden , also advocate the incorporation of learner strategy training into learning programs. Despite the considerable interest in learning styles and strategies, investigations into the effect of learner strategy training on language acquisition are relatively uncommon, and the results are rather mixed.
In the s, when this line of research started to gain traction, Cohen and Aphek investigated the effect of strategy training on vocabulary acquisition.
They found that certain strategies such as the paired associates technique resulted in successful acquisition. At about the same time, Carroll investigated inductive learning. In this study, the ability to derive rules from samples of language was positively correlated with language aptitude. This research found that training had a significant effect on speaking but not on listening. A decade later, in an investigation into the effect of providing opportunities for reflection, self-reporting and self- monitoring among university students, Nunan a found that opportunities to reflect on learning led to greater sensitivity to the learning process over time.
Students were also able to make greater connections between their English classes and content courses conducted in English. Finally, opportunities to keep guided journals helped learners to develop skills for articulating what they wanted to learn and how they wanted to learn it.
The research did not, however, establish a correlation between strategy training and acquisition. A major investigation into learning strategy preferences by adult immigrants was carried out by Willing Willing set out to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between strategy preferences and biographical characteristics such as first language background and level of education.
The research failed to establish any such relationships, and Willing concluded that learning style differences were due to personality and cognitive style rather than factors such as ethnicity and educational attainment. A study by Nunan further investigated the effects of strategy training on four key aspects of the learning process: student motivation, student knowledge of strategies, the perceived utility of strategies, and actual strategy use.
In a formal experiment, in which the experimental group was systematically trained in a range of strategies, subjects outperformed the control subjects on measures of motivation, knowledge and perceived utility. Again, however, the relationship between strategy training and acquisition remains indirect. Styles may thus have an impact on learning outcomes. Based on their research, the investigators conclude that learner training and helping learners identify their strengths and weaknesses can have a positive impact on learning outcomes.
In summary, there is some evidence to support that notion that incorporating a learning-how-to-learn dimension into the language curriculum has a positive impact on second language acquisition, although the evidence of a direct relationship is relative scant.
Training has a significant impact on motivation, aptitude, knowledge of strategies, and the perceived usefulness of directly applying strategies to language learning and use. What is uncertain is whether all strategies have an equal impact on these constructs and, ultimately, on acquisition, or whether some strategies are more potent than others.
Rubin took the lead in studying the good language learner through classroom obser- vations and identified seven strategies favored by them. Stern noted ten strategies of good language learning and described successful language learners in the aspects of personal characteristics, styles, and strategies. Naiman et al. These studies documented some major characteristics of the good language learner, including awareness of learning styles and strategies, autonomy and self-direction in the learning process, and active language use.
Jones et al. This research revealed that effective learners were aware of the processes underlying their own learning and sought to match strategies to learning goals. Nunan found that effective language learners dis- played a high degree of autonomy, and were able to reflect on and articulate the processes underlying their own learning. Similar findings are documented in Benson and Benson and Nunan One key finding in the latter study was that effective learners not only developed a high degree of autonomy but that the development of autonomy appeared to be associated with a view of language as a tool for communication rather than as a subject to be studied in the same way as other school subjects.
The relationship between language proficiency and self-directed language learning was explored by Gan Three hundred and fifty-seven students from two mid-eastern universities in China completed a survey probing self- directed language learning attitudes and strategies.
Interestingly, attitudes to SDLL did not seem to have a strong direct effect on language proficiency. The study did reveal, however, that learners overall were positive towards SDLL and the results cast doubt on the stereotypical notion of the passive Asian learner.
In a follow-up study, Gan et al. In this study, attitudes towards the learning of the target language rather than specific strategies seemed to differentiate the successful from the unsuc- cessful learners. Active use of the target language, with a strong emphasis on practice in naturalistic situations, was the most important factor in the development of proficiency in a second language.
They argue that sociocultural perspectives offer more useful insights into the nature of the good language learner than psycholinguistic ones, and conclude from the studies they reviewed, that. Our research and recent theoretical discussions have convinced us that understanding good language learning requires attention to social practices in the contexts in which individuals learn L2s.
As well, we have argued for the importance of examining the ways in which learners exercise their agency in forming and reforming their identities in those contexts. Norton and Toohey, In this section, we have reviewed what the literature has to say on the characteristics of the good language learner. The research has identified a range of strategies of the good language learner, but there are no comparative investi- gations of the strategy use of effective versus ineffective learners.
The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners
Strategy instruction for learning and performing target language pragmatics. Harris eds. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters. Cohen, A. Fine-tuning word meanings through mobile app and online resources: A case study of strategy use by a hyperpolyglot.
Broadly speaking, learning styles can be defined as general approaches to language learning, while learning strategies are specific ways learners choose to cope with language tasks in particular contexts. Learning strategies are the ways in which students learn, remember information, and study for tests. They refer to the actions and behaviors The strategies that depend greatly on their own learning styles. On the other hand, learning styles refer to the general approaches that students use in acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject. As a result, we have different students with different learning styles inside the classroom as shown below:. Visual learners need to see things to fully understand them.
In "Language Learning Styles and Strategies," the author synthesizes research from various parts of the world on two key variables affecting language learning:.
Learning Styles & Strategies
Language learning strategies is a term referring to the processes and actions that are consciously deployed by language learners to help them to learn or use a language more effectively. Language learning strategies were first introduced to the second language literature in , with research on the good language learner. Initial studies aimed to document the strategies of good language learners. In the 80s the emphasis moved to classification of language learning strategies. Controversy over basic issues such as definition grew stronger in the late s and early s, however, with some researchers  giving up trying to define the concept in favour of listing essential characteristics.
Language learning strategies
Learning strategies vs. They refer to the actions and behaviors students use to learn but learning styles refer to the general approaches that students use in acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject. Learning styles:. As a result we have different students with different learning styles inside the classroom as shown below:. Visual or spatial learners: They need to see things to fully understand them. They learn best from visual objects such as diagrams, charts, etc.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Oxford Published Computer Science. In "Language Learning Styles and Strategies," the author synthesizes research from various parts of the world on two key variables affecting language learning: styles, i. These factors influence the student's ability to learn in a particular instructional framework. Save to Library. Create Alert.
variations in, learning strategies; (c) the effect of matching and mismatching a teaching and language learning, clearly exhibit distinct styles. Other studies.
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