Sense And Reference In Semantics Pdf

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The Sense/Reference Distinction in Constructive Semantics

Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object.

It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object.

A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. Its referent may be anything — a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible onomatopoeia , visual text , olfactory , or tactile, emotional state , relationship with other, [1] spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric , a physical object or an energy projection.

In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below. The verb refer to and its derivatives may carry the sense of "link to" or "connect to", as in the meanings of reference described in this article.

Another sense is "consult"; this is reflected in such expressions as reference work , reference desk , job reference , etc. In semantics , reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them.

Hence, the word "John" refers to the person John. The word "it" refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the referent of the word.

The converse relation, the relation from object to word, is called " exemplification "; the object exemplifies what the word denotes. In syntactic analysis, if a word refers to a previous word, the previous word is called the " antecedent ". Gottlob Frege argued that reference cannot be treated as identical with meaning : " Hesperus " an ancient Greek name for the evening star and " Phosphorus " an ancient Greek name for the morning star both refer to Venus , but the astronomical fact that '"Hesperus" is "Phosphorus"' can still be informative, even if the "meanings" of "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus" are already known.

This problem led Frege to distinguish between the sense and reference of a word. Some cases seem to be too complicated to be classified within this framework; the acceptance of the notion of secondary reference may be necessary to fill the gap.

See also Opaque context. The very concept of the linguistic sign is the combination of content and expression, the former of which may refer entities in the world or refer more abstract concepts, e.

Certain parts of speech exist only to express reference, namely anaphora such as pronouns. The subset of reflexives expresses co-reference of two participants in a sentence. These could be the agent actor and patient acted on , as in "The man washed himself", the theme and recipient, as in "I showed Mary to herself", or various other possible combinations. In computer science , references are data types that refer to an object elsewhere in memory and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures , such as linked lists.

Generally, a reference is a value that enables a program to directly access the particular data item. Most programming languages support some form of reference. The notion of reference is also important in relational database theory ; see referential integrity.

References to many types of printed matter may come in an electronic or machine-readable form. In terms of mental processing, a self-reference is used in psychology to establish identification with a mental state during self-analysis.

This seeks to allow the individual to develop own frames of reference in a greater state of immediate awareness. However, it can also lead to circular reasoning, preventing evolution of thought. According to Perceptual Control Theory PCT , a reference condition is the state toward which a control system's output tends to alter a controlled quantity. The main proposition is that "All behavior is oriented all of the time around the control of certain quantities with respect to specific reference conditions.

In academics and scholarship, a reference or bibliographical reference is a piece of information provided in a footnote or bibliography of a written work such as a book, article, essay, report, oration or any other text type , specifying the written work of another person used in the creation of that text.

A bibliographical reference mostly includes the full name of the author , the title of their work and the year of publication. The primary purpose of references is to allow readers to examine the sources of a text, either for validity or to learn more about the subject.

Such items are often listed at the end of a work in a section marked References or Bibliography. A reference section contains only those works indeed cited in the main text of a work.

In contrast, a bibliographical section often contains works not cited by the author, but used as background reading or listed as potentially useful to the reader. Keeping a diary allows an individual to use references for personal organization, whether or not anyone else understands the systems of reference used. However, scholars have studied methods of reference because of their key role in communication and co-operation between different people, and also because of misunderstandings that can arise.

Modern academic study of bibliographical references has been developing since the 19th century. In patent law, a reference is a document that can be used to show the state of knowledge at a given time and that therefore may make a claimed invention obvious or anticipated. Examples of references are patents of any country, magazine articles, Ph.

In art , a reference is an item from which a work is based. This may include:. Another example of reference is samples of various musical works being incorporated into a new one. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. For other uses, see Reference disambiguation. Further information: Sense and reference and Theory of reference. Main article: Reference computer science.

See also: Reference work and Reference desk. Aspects of alterity: Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate. Fordham University Press. New Canaan, Connecticut: Benchmark Publications. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Outline History. Argumentation Metalogic Metamathematics Set. Mathematical logic Boolean algebra Set theory. Logicians Rules of inference Paradoxes Fallacies Logic symbols.

Categories : Reference Semantics Philosophical logic Concepts in logic Syntactic relationships Meaning philosophy of language.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Look up reference in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Sense-Reference Distinction

The reference of a word is the relation between the linguistic expression and the entity in the real world to which it refers. In contrast to reference, sense is defined as its relations to other expressions in the language system. Thus, there are words that have a sense, but no referents in the real world. Other words may differ in sense, but not necessarily in reference, and vice versa. The class of entities to which an expression can be applied is usually called its extension. Consequently, the referent of a word is always a member of the class of entities that constitutes its extension.

Indian Philosophy of Language pp Cite as. It is generally accepted that Indian philosophers of language do not posit sense as a component of the meaning of an expression in addition to its reference. There is, for instance, no notion of analyticity-- of propositions which are true by virtue of meaning alone--in Indian philosophy. Likewise no distinction is drawn between contingently and necessarily non-existent objects: two stock examples of a non-existent are the horns of a hare and the son of a barren woman, and these two examples are treated as in all respects alike. Thus the distinction is not drawn between negative existentials that are true by virtue of the meanings of their constituent words, and negative existentials that are made true by the facts.

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talking of SENSE=dealing with relationships inside by means of reference a speaker indicates system of semantic relationships with other expressions in.

Mario Bunge -- Semantics (I)_ Sense and Reference.pdf

Semantics , also called semiotics , semology , or semasiology , the philosophical and scientific study of meaning in natural and artificial languages. It is difficult to formulate a distinct definition for each of these terms, because their use largely overlaps in the literature despite individual preferences. The word semantics has ultimately prevailed as a name for the doctrine of meaning, of linguistic meaning in particular. Semiotics is still used, however, to denote a broader field: the study of sign-using behaviour in general.

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Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation.

И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать.

Услышав имя Дэвида, произнесенное вслух, Сьюзан дала волю своему горю. Сначала она едва заметно вздрогнула, словно от озноба, и тут же ее захлестнула волна отчаяния. Приоткрыв дрожащие губы, она попыталась что-то сказать, но слов не последовало.

Дэвид Беккер повесил трубку. Альфонсо XIII.

 Может быть, Стратмор решил посмотреть на звезды. - Джабба, мне не до шуток. - Ну хорошо, - сказал он, приподнимаясь на локтях.

 - Танкадо мертв. Все замерли в изумлении. Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу. Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол.

 И вы уверены, что эта женщина - проститутка.


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I guess the Reference is: A [former] President of the USA George Bush senior ; The reference and sense of a sign are to be distinguished from the [p25] associated idea.

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