Photovoltaic Effect And Photovoltaic Materials Pdf


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Applied Solid State Physics pp Cite as. The photovoltaic effect is the generation of a voltage due to optical excitations when a semiconductor is illuminated at the electrodes or at internal barriers or p-n junctions. The specific effect that will be the subject of these lectures is the voltage developed when a semiconductor body containing a p-n junction is exposed to optical illumination.

Photovoltaic effect

Definition: The Photovoltaic cell is the semiconductor device that converts the light into electrical energy. The name Photovoltaic is because of their voltage producing capability.

The electrons of the semiconductor material are joined together by the covalent bond. The electromagnetic radiations are made of small energy particles called photons. When the photons are incident on the semiconductor material, then the electrons become energised and starts emitting. The energises electron is known as the Photoelectrons. And the phenomenon of emission of electrons is known as the photoelectric effect. The working of the Photovoltaic cell depends on the photoelectric effect.

The semiconductor materials like arsenide, indium, cadmium, silicon, selenium and gallium are used for making the PV cells. Mostly silicon and selenium are used for making the cell. Consider the figure below shows the constructions of the silicon photovoltaic cell.

The upper surface of the cell is made of the thin layer of the p-type material so that the light can easily enter into the material. The metal rings are placed around p-type and n-type material which acts as their positive and negative output terminals respectively. The multi-crystalline or monocrystalline semiconductor material make the single unit of the PV cell. The mono-crystal cell is cut from the volume of the semiconductor material.

The multicell are obtained from the material which has many sides. The output voltage and current obtained from the single unit of the cell is very less. The magnitude of the output voltage is 0. The different combinations of cells are used for increasing the output efficiency. There are three possible ways of combining the PV cells.

If more than two cells are connected in series with each other, then the output current of the cell remains same, and their input voltage becomes doubles. The graph below shows the output characteristic of the PV cells when connected in series. In the parallel combination of the cells, the voltage remains same, and the magnitude of current becomes double.

The characteristic curve of the parallel combination of cells is represented below. In the series-parallel combination of cells the magnitude of both the voltage and current increases.

Thereby, the solar panels are made by using the series-parallel combination of the cells. The solar module is constructed by connecting the single solar cells. And the combination of the solar modules together is known as the solar panel.

The light incident on the semiconductor material may be pass or reflected through it. The PV cell is made of the semiconductor material which is neither a complete conductor nor an insulator. This property of semiconductor material makes it more efficient for converting the light energy into electric energy. When the semiconductor material absorbs light, the electrons of the material starts emitting.

This happens because the light consists small energise particles called photons. Because of the effect of an electric field, the particles move only in the one direction and develops current. The semiconductor materials have the metallic electrodes through which the current goes out of it. Consider the figure below shows the PV cell made of silicon and the resistive load is connected across it. The PV cell consists the P and N-type layer of semiconductor material.

These layers are joined together to form the PN junction. The junction is the interface between the p-type and n-type material. When the light fall on the junction the electrons starts moving from one region to another. Maximum power point tracker, inverter, charge controller and battery are the name of the apparatus used for converting the radiation into an electrical voltage.

The efficiency of the PV cell depends on the intensity of sunlight fall on it. The power of the sun varies with the time because of the movement of the earth. So for absorbing the maximum light, the panel needs to be moved along with the sun. Thereby the maximum power point tracker is used with the solar panel.

Charge Controller — The charge controller regulates the voltage drawn from the panel. It also protects the battery from the overcharging or overvoltage. Inverter — The inverter converts the direct current into the alternating current and vice versa.

The conversion is essential because some of the appliances require ac supply for their work. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Skip to content Definition: The Photovoltaic cell is the semiconductor device that converts the light into electrical energy. Leave a Comment Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published.

Photovoltaic Cells – Generating electricity

The photovoltaic effect is a process that generates voltage or electric current in a photovoltaic cell when it is exposed to sunlight. It is this effect that makes solar panels useful, as it is how the cells within the panel convert sunlight to electrical energy. The photovoltaic effect was first discovered in by Edmond Becquerel. When doing experiments involving wet cells , he noted that the voltage of the cell increased when its silver plates were exposed to the sunlight. The photovoltaic effect occurs in solar cells.

Solar cell , also called photovoltaic cell , any device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. The overwhelming majority of solar cells are fabricated from silicon —with increasing efficiency and lowering cost as the materials range from amorphous noncrystalline to polycrystalline to crystalline single crystal silicon forms. Unlike batteries or fuel cells , solar cells do not utilize chemical reactions or require fuel to produce electric power , and, unlike electric generators , they do not have any moving parts. Solar cells can be arranged into large groupings called arrays. These arrays, composed of many thousands of individual cells, can function as central electric power stations, converting sunlight into electrical energy for distribution to industrial, commercial, and residential users. Solar cells in much smaller configurations, commonly referred to as solar cell panels or simply solar panels , have been installed by homeowners on their rooftops to replace or augment their conventional electric supply.


PDF | On Jul 11, , Beddiaf Zaidi published Introductory Chapter: In book: Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials (pp); Publisher.


Solar cell

A solar cell is essential a PN junction with a large surface area. The N-type material is kept thin to allow light to pass through to the PN junction. Light travels in packets of energy called photons. The generation of electric current happens inside the depletion zone of the PN junction. The depletion region as explained previously with the diode is the area around the PN junction where the electrons from the N-type silicon, have diffused into the holes of the P-type material.

The Rappe Group. People Andrew M. Bulk Photovoltaic Effect.

Photovoltaic or Solar Cell

Photovoltaic effect

Definition: The Photovoltaic cell is the semiconductor device that converts the light into electrical energy. The name Photovoltaic is because of their voltage producing capability. The electrons of the semiconductor material are joined together by the covalent bond. The electromagnetic radiations are made of small energy particles called photons.

Skip to content Our portfolio of solutions emphasize proven power and lasting value to help you achieve higher lifetime returns on your investments. The record lab cell efficiency is Engineering Departments. Solar cells, or photovoltaic cells, transform light, usually sunlight, into electric current. Solar Photovoltaic 1. When light shines on a photovoltaic PV cell, it may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through it.

Authors and Editors

The collection of light-generated carriers does not by itself give rise to power generation. In order to generate power, a voltage must be generated as well as a current. Voltage is generated in a solar cell by a process known as the "photovoltaic effect". The collection of light-generated carriers by the p-n junction causes a movement of electrons to the n -type side and holes to the p -type side of the junction. Under short circuit conditions, there is no build up of charge, as the carriers exit the device as light-generated current.

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Semiconductor Photovoltaic Effect and Devices

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