Einstein On Israel And Zionism Pdf


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Albert Einstein. Many of our ebooks are available for purchase from these online vendors:. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. Roosevelt warning that Germany might try to develop an atomic bomb.

8 Jewish Factoids About Albert Einstein

I was intrigued: Einstein, after all, was Einstein , the iconic representation of genius in contemporary popular culture. I was curious. While Einstein was a secular Jew, had mixed feelings about Zionism, and supported the goal of a Jewish "homeland" within Palestine, he never wavered from arguing forcefully for equal rights and equal power for the Arabs -- whom he called "kinfolk" of the Jews. His nationalism had no room for any kind of aggressiveness or chauvinism.

For him, the domination of Jew over Arab in Palestine, or the perpetuation of a state of mutual hostility between the two peoples, would mean the failure of Zionism. The core of the book is composed of Einstein's letters, speeches, and interviews on the subject of Israel and Zionism, organized into chronological chapters.

Editor Jerome wrote a short general introduction to the book and brief historical essays at the beginning of each chapter. This structure can sometimes be a bit confusing, as Jerome generally cites in his essays some of the material he reprints later in the chapter. The chronological divisions, however, do make sense, highlighting the evolution in Einstein's thinking as events in Germany and Palestine e.

The book was published in June , and seems to have been rushed into print as a result of Israel's assault on Gaza in December and January. Schiffman's, dated December 27, , includes these lines:.

It is the classical colonial relation. The book's strength lies in its comprehensive compilation of Einstein's writings on the subject; according to Jerome all of his relevant work is included. It's possible to quibble around the edges of this claim, as Jerome acknowledges that some works bearing Einstein's signature but which it appears Einstein did not actually write are not included while others that are included are of questionable authorship more on this last point later. For some reason, when I began reading the book I had the mistaken impression Einstein was an anti-Zionist.

Nothing could be further from the truth. In the earliest writings in the book, from the late teens and early twenties, Einstein looked forward to the resettlement of Eastern European Jewish refugees in Palestine and developed an anti-assimilationist cultural nationalism that would form the foundation of the more developed cultural Zionism characterizing his thought for the rest of his life.

In , he wrote "How I became a Zionist" for a German Jewish newspaper, in which the defense of Jewish identity in the face of widespread German anti-Semitism played a key organizing role. In he visited Jewish settlements in Palestine and wrote enthusiastically of his observations in the German-Jewish press.

Even at this early date, though, he expressed misgivings about the political intentions of the Zionist leadership:. In comparison with these two evils [indebtedness and the threat of malaria] the Arab question becomes as nothing.

And in regard to the last I must remark that I have myself seen more than once insurance of friendly relations between Jewish and Arab workers. I believe that most of the difficulty comes from the intellectuals and, at that, not from the Arab intellectuals alone p. Over the course of the next thirty years, until his death in , Einstein continued to develop this theme of inherently good relations between Jewish and Arab workers made impossible through the meddling of Arab, Zionist, and British political leaders.

Einstein, like many people around the world, was tremendously shaken by the tragic events of , but even the brutal, organized massacres of Jews by Palestinian mobs didn't shake his faith that Jewish-Arab cooperation was possible. In August , as the pogroms were still ongoing, he wrote:. The first and most important necessity is the creation of a modus vivendi with the Arab people. Friction is perhaps inevitable, but its evil consequences must be overcome by organized co-operation, so that the inflammable material may not be piled up to the point of danger.

The absence of normal contact in every-day life is bound to produce an atmosphere of mutual fear and distrust, which is favourable to such lamentable outbursts of passion as we have witnessed. We Jews must show above all that our own history of suffering has given us sufficient understanding and psychological insight to know how to cope with this problem of psychology and organization: the more so as no irreconcilable differences stand in the way of peace between Jews and Arabs in Palestine.

Let us therefore above all be on our guard against blind chauvinism of any kind, and let us not imagine that reason and common-sense can be replaced by British bayonets pp. The reference to chauvinism in that passage is ambiguous: while the paragraph overall is about Jewish responsibilities to seek common cause with the Arabs, Einstein was not explicit as to whether he was referring to Jewish nationalism, Arab nationalism, or simply nationalism in general.

In a June letter to Hugo Bergmann a founding member of the cultural Zionist organization Brit Shalom Einstein was much more clear:.

Only direct cooperation with the Arabs can create a dignified and safe life. If the Jews don't comprehend this, the whole Jewish population in the complex of Arab countries will become step by step untenable. What saddens me is less the fact that the Jews are not smart enough to understand this, but rather, that they are not just enough to want it p.

In a pair of letters in early to the Jaffa newspaper Falastin according to Joel Beinin. In the second letter, published in Falastin on March 15, Einstein wrote:. A Privy Council is to be formed to which the Jews and Arabs shall each send four representatives, who must be independent of all political parties.

A doctor, elected by the Medical Association; A lawyer, elected by the lawyers; A working men's representative, elected by the trade unions; An ecclesiastic, elected by the ecclesiastics.

These eight people are to meet once a week. They undertake not to espouse the sectional interests of their profession or nation but conscientiously and to the best of their power to aim at the welfare of the whole population of the country. Their deliberations shall be secret and they are strictly forbidden to give any information about them, even in private. When a decision has been reached on any subject in which not less than three members on each side concur, it may be published, but only in the name of the whole Council If one of the elective bodies above specified is dissatisfied with a resolution of the Council, it may replace its representative by another pp.

Eight years later, at the height of the Palestinian General Strike, Einstein actually attempted to implement this utopian plan. A series of letters reproduced on pp.

It turned out, however, that Shatara, a Christian Palestinian doctor, had no influence on the Palestinian political leadership back in the Middle East and neither Einstein nor Shatara were able to convince any organizations to send representatives to the Council. Einstein, however, did not give up on the idea. I believe, if there would be a really honest government for the people [in Palestine], that got the Arabs and the Jews together, there would be nothing to fear p.

He had learned something from the failed Shatara initiative, though, and instead of a private initiative of Arabs and Jews he now proposed an external party to manage the territory:. I believe the Palestine people [by this he means Arabs and Jews], under the severe influence of the United Nations, will be able to create a better state of affairs [p.

Einstein, who had grown up and completed his most important scientific discoveries in Switzerland, believed that country's cantonal structure could provide a workable model for a bi-national state in Palestine.

In he had written:. We -- that is to say, the Arabs and ourselves -- have got to agree on the main outlines of an advantageous partnership which shall satisfy the needs of both nations. Remember that Switzerland represents a higher stage of political development than any national state, precisely because of the greater political problems which had to be solved before a stable community could be built up out of groups of different nationality p.

I have never favored a Jewish State in Palestine but a binational state, held under strict United Nations government as long as national antagonisms are prevailing there p. In April , after Partition and with generalized conflict between Palestinian and Jewish militias well under way, Einstein and Leo Baeck signed a letter to the New York Times calling for Arab-Jewish cooperation in order to circumvent "Arab and Jewish extremists [who] are today recklessly pushing Palestine into a futile war" p.

Even after the declaration of Israeli independence, in May , Einstein continued to hold out hope for equal treatment of Arabs in the Jewish state. In the waning months of his life, in January he died in April of that year , he wrote to Zvi Lurie:. We must incessantly strive to treat the citizens of Arab descent living in our midst as our equals in every respect, and we must develop the necessary understanding for the difficultires of their situation naturally accompanying it.

By such a stance, we will both win loyal fellow citizens and improve, slowly but steadily, our relations with the Arab world Our stance toward the Arab minority is the true touchstone of our moral standard p. This is getting long.

In a second diary, I'll talk about Einstein's experiences with anti-semitism in Germany, his relations with the Zionist movement, and critique the sophistication of his political thought. Einstein on Israel and Zionism, Part 1.

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The author's blurb on the flap heightened my interest: While Einstein was a secular Jew, had mixed feelings about Zionism, and supported the goal of a Jewish "homeland" within Palestine, he never wavered from arguing forcefully for equal rights and equal power for the Arabs -- whom he called "kinfolk" of the Jews. This looked like a book I wanted to read. More on the flip Schiffman's, dated December 27, , includes these lines: as I write, the Palestinian people are probably at the absolute nadir of their history and are once more being forced to undergo an unprecedented Calvary, with more than two hundred Palestinians killed today, allegedly in response to Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel where no one was killed and no one was injured but which, according to the TV stations in my home country, Germany, forced the Israeli population of the border region to live "in a state of permanent fear.

If you're looking for pretensions of authorial objectivity, this is not the book for you. Even at this early date, though, he expressed misgivings about the political intentions of the Zionist leadership: In comparison with these two evils [indebtedness and the threat of malaria] the Arab question becomes as nothing. In August , as the pogroms were still ongoing, he wrote: The first and most important necessity is the creation of a modus vivendi with the Arab people.

In a June letter to Hugo Bergmann a founding member of the cultural Zionist organization Brit Shalom Einstein was much more clear: Only direct cooperation with the Arabs can create a dignified and safe life. In the second letter, published in Falastin on March 15, Einstein wrote: A Privy Council is to be formed to which the Jews and Arabs shall each send four representatives, who must be independent of all political parties.

Each group is composed as follows: A doctor, elected by the Medical Association; A lawyer, elected by the lawyers; A working men's representative, elected by the trade unions; An ecclesiastic, elected by the ecclesiastics. In testimony before the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry on Palestine in January he said: I believe, if there would be a really honest government for the people [in Palestine], that got the Arabs and the Jews together, there would be nothing to fear p.

He had learned something from the failed Shatara initiative, though, and instead of a private initiative of Arabs and Jews he now proposed an external party to manage the territory: I believe the Palestine people [by this he means Arabs and Jews], under the severe influence of the United Nations, will be able to create a better state of affairs [p.

In he had written: We -- that is to say, the Arabs and ourselves -- have got to agree on the main outlines of an advantageous partnership which shall satisfy the needs of both nations.

In September , on the eve of the partition of Palestine by the United Nations, Einstein wrote to Jerome Frank : I have never favored a Jewish State in Palestine but a binational state, held under strict United Nations government as long as national antagonisms are prevailing there p. In the waning months of his life, in January he died in April of that year , he wrote to Zvi Lurie: We must incessantly strive to treat the citizens of Arab descent living in our midst as our equals in every respect, and we must develop the necessary understanding for the difficultires of their situation naturally accompanying it.

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Apartheid and Zionism : Precise Definitions, Visceral

Albert Einstein was widely known during his lifetime for his work with the theory of relativity and physics in general. He was also a peace activist, a firm advocate of world federalism , international police force , and world law. Einstein was in favour of socialism , and wrote an essay titled "Why Socialism? His political opinions were of public interest through the middle of the 20th century due to his fame and involvement in political, humanitarian and academic projects around the world. He was often called upon to give judgments and opinions on matters often unrelated to theoretical physics or mathematics. Einstein's visible position in society allowed him to speak and write frankly, even provocatively, at a time when many people were silenced due to the rise of the Nazi movement.

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By speaking out against anti-Semitism and lending his brand to institutions like the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Einstein became a standard-bearer for the Diaspora. As a prominent booster of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a star fundraiser for the Zionist cause, he became inextricably linked with Zionism. Steven Gimbel, a professor of philosophy at Gettysburg College, says that it is easy for diverse and sometimes opposing groups — Zionists and anti-Zionists, atheists and religious Jews — to claim Einstein as their own. He recoiled from Orthodox Judaism, but he felt a deep kinship with the Jewish people. He opposed the idea of a Jewish state, yet raised money for the Zionist cause and was invited to become president of Israel.

Mathematics in Israel

Young Einstein went through an observant phase at 12, even though his parents were secular Ashkenazi German Jews. He raised money for the World Zionist Organization. He agreed to take a fundraising tour of the United States in , where he was greeted as a celebrity.

I was intrigued: Einstein, after all, was Einstein , the iconic representation of genius in contemporary popular culture. I was curious. While Einstein was a secular Jew, had mixed feelings about Zionism, and supported the goal of a Jewish "homeland" within Palestine, he never wavered from arguing forcefully for equal rights and equal power for the Arabs -- whom he called "kinfolk" of the Jews.

It was formed out of the membership and following of the former Irgun Zvai Leumi, a terrorist, right-wing, chauvinist organization in Palestine. The current visit of Menachem Begin, leader of this party, to the United States is obviously calculated to give the impression of American support for his party in the coming Israeli elections, and to cement political ties with conservative Zionist elements in the United States. Several Americans of national repute have lent their names to welcome his visit.

Пора было отсюда вылезать. Дернул. Никакой реакции. Он дернул шнурок в третий раз, более резко.

Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил. Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул.

1 Comments

Rudy G.
04.04.2021 at 23:06 - Reply

Did Albert Einstein support the political Zionism that led to the establishment of the State of. Israel? Did he later politically support the Zionist state of Israel until his.

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