Competition In Energy Drinks Sports Drinks And Vitamin Enhanced Beverages PdfBy Swen M. In and pdf 02.04.2021 at 07:13 7 min read
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- Energy drinks continue steady growth
- Competition in Energy Drinks. Sports Drinks. and Vitamin-Enhanced Beverages
- Jenny L. Grus
Energy drinks continue steady growth
Pediatrics , 14 Feb , 3 : DOI: Review Free to read. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications.
Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families.
Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.
Although healthy people can tolerate caffeine in moderation, heavy caffeine consumption, such as drinking energy drinks, has been associated with serious consequences such as seizures, mania, stroke, and sudden death. Children, especially those with cardiovascular, renal, or liver disease, seizures, diabetes, mood and behavioral disorders, or hyperthyroidism or those who take certain medications, may be at higher risk for adverse events from energy drink consumption.
Given the rapidly growing market and popularity among youth, we reviewed the literature to 1 determine what energy drinks are, 2 compile consumption data of energy drinks by children, adolescents, and young adults, 3 compile caffeine and energy drink overdose data, 4 examine the physiologic effects of the ingredients in energy drinks, 5 identify potential problems of energy drinks among children and adolescents, 6 assess the marketing of energy drinks, 7 report current regulation of energy drinks, and 8 propose educational, research, and regulatory recommendations.
We limited searches to English-language and foreign-language articles with English-language abstracts and selected articles by relevance to energy drink use in children and adolescents.
We similarly searched Google for print and trade media. We reviewed articles and Internet sources by the above search through June and updated sections as new information became available through January Two-thirds of the references we found on energy drinks were in the scientific literature, although reports by government agencies and interest groups also contained much useful information Table 1.
Energy drinks may contain caffeine, taurine, sugars and sweeteners, herbal supplements, and other ingredients Table 2 and are distinct from sports drinks and vitamin waters Table 3. Energy drinks often contain additional amounts of caffeine through additives, including guarana, kola nut, yerba mate, and cocoa. Mathematical model estimates for dietary consumption of caffeine and energy drinks in children aged 5 to 12 years A , adolescents aged 13 to 19 years B , and young males aged 19 to 24 years C using caffeine-concentration data from food and beverages combined with hour diet-recall information from the New Zealand National Nutrition Survey and the New Zealand National Children's Nutrition Survey.
A, Distribution of dietary baseline caffeine-exposure estimates for children 5—12 years old. B, Distribution of dietary baseline caffeine-exposure estimates for teenagers 13—19 years old.
A, Estimated distribution of caffeine exposure for children 5—12 years old after the consumption of 1 to 4 retail units of energy drinks or energy shots. The area under the curves to the right of the adverse-effect lines represents the proportion of consumers potentially at risk from adverse effects of caffeine or the probability of a random consumer exceeding the adverse-effect level.
A, Cumulative probability curves of children 5—12 years old consuming 1 to 4 retail units of energy drinks or energy shots in addition to baseline dietary exposure. The portion of each curve to the right of the adverse-effect level represents the proportion of the population group potentially at risk from adverse effects of caffeine. Germany has tracked energy drink—related incidents since The maximum volume consumed was fifteen mL cans Caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive drug worldwide, may be the only psychoactive drug legally available over-the-counter to children and sold among food and beverage products.
Physiologically, caffeine causes coronary and cerebral vasoconstriction, relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates skeletal muscle, has cardiac chronotropic and inotropic effects, reduces insulin sensitivity, and modulates gene expression in premature neonates. Caffeine is a ventilatory stimulant with anti-inflammatory and bronchoprotective effects. Caffeine can improve attention, but it also increases blood pressure and sleep disturbances in children.
The children who did not habitually consume caffeine reported no marked changes in cognitive performance, alertness, or headache. Caffeine may affect future food and beverage preferences by acting on the developing child's brain reward-and-addiction center; this effect may be gender specific. Popular media and case reports have associated adverse events with energy drink consumption Appendix. Yet, few studies have examined the physiologic effects of individual ingredients or potential synergistic effects; furthermore, results of experimental studies have been inconclusive and occasionally contradictory.
Some studies of adults revealed improved mental alertness, reaction times, and concentration with energy drinks 59 , 74 ; others revealed no improvement compared with caffeine or glucose alone. Caffeine- and taurine-containing beverages increased left atrial contractility in 13 athletes, thereby increasing left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume.
Among 50 young adults who drank one sugar-free energy drink, hematologic and vascular effects included increased platelet aggregation and mean arterial pressure and a decrease in endothelial function.
Ginseng, a common ingredient in many energy drinks, may lower blood glucose levels, but its actions in energy drinks are unclear. High doses of caffeine may exacerbate cardiac conditions for which stimulants are contraindicated. Children and adolescents with eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa, may regularly consume high amounts of caffeine to counter caloric-restriction—associated fatigue, suppress appetite, and produce looser stools and some diuresis.
Because obesity is epidemic, caloric increases from energy drink consumption become important. Additional calories may increase blood pressure, blood glucose levels, BMI, calcium deficiency, dental problems, depression, and low self-esteem. Early adolescence is the time of maximal calcium deposition in bone, and caffeine interferes with intestinal calcium absorption.
Youth-targeted marketing strategies date to when Red Bull was introduced in Austria. Energy drink marketing strategies include sporting event and athlete sponsorships, alcohol-alternative promotion, and product placement in media including Facebook and video games oriented to children, adolescents, and young adults.
Contrasting with brand design is the voluntary fine-print warning label on some products, which state that they may not be safe for children, those who are sensitive to caffeine, or for pregnant or nursing women. The FDA imposes a limit of 71 mg of caffeine per 12 fl oz of soda.
In November , the FDA asked manufacturers of alcoholic energy drinks to prove their safety. Ingredients may also be restricted to those that have already been approved by the FDA. Regulatory controversies also extend internationally Table 7. When France banned Red Bull, the manufacturers challenged the ban through the European Commission, which determined that the caffeine and taurine concentrations in energy drinks had not been proven to be health risks and ordered France to lift the ban; the European Food Safety Authority has encouraged international data-pooling to better assess risks in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Red Bull manufacturers insisted that active cocaine was removed from the coca leaf during processing and that the extract was used for flavoring. However, 11 of 16 German states banned the product. In the short-term, pediatric health care providers need to be aware of energy drink consumption by children, adolescents, and young adults and the potentially dangerous consequences of inappropriate use.
Screening is especially important for athletes, children with high-risk behaviors, certain health conditions eg, seizures, diabetes, hypertension, cardiac abnormalities , and children with behavioral changes, anxiety, poor nutrition, or sleep disturbances. For most children, adolescents, and young adults, safe levels of consumption have not been established. Yet, heavy use may be harmful or interact with medications and cause untoward adverse effects.
Health care providers should educate families and children at risk for the potential adverse effects of energy drinks. Routine high school athletic physicals do not identify everyone at risk for sudden cardiac death. Long-term research objectives should aim to better define maximum safe doses, the effects of chronic use, and effects in at-risk populations eg, those with preexisting medical conditions, those who consume energy drinks during and after exercise, or those who consume them in combination with alcohol , and better documentation and tracking of adverse health effects.
Read article at publisher's site DOI : Free to read at intl-pediatrics. Anat Cell Biol , 53 3 , 01 Sep Ann Gen Psychiatry , , 20 Jun Pharmacol Res , , 30 May Ital J Pediatr , 46 1 , 01 Jun To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.
Search articles by 'Sara M Seifert'. Seifert SM 1 ,. Schaechter JL ,. Hershorin ER ,. Lipshultz SE. Affiliations 1 author 1. This article has been corrected. See Pediatrics. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook.
Methods We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks.
Conclusions Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated.
Competition in Energy Drinks. Sports Drinks. and Vitamin-Enhanced Beverages
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Jenny L. Grus
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An energy drink is a type of drink containing stimulant compounds, usually caffeine , which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy. They may or may not be carbonated and may also contain sugar , other sweeteners, herbal extracts , taurine , and amino acids. They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels , and distinct from sports drinks , which are advertised to enhance sports performance. There are many brands and varieties in this drink category. Coffee , tea and other naturally caffeinated drinks are usually not considered energy drinks.
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