Definition Of Library And Information Science Pdf


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It is concerned with the body of knowledge relating to the origination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, transmission, and utilization of information. Among the disciplines brought together in this amalgam called information science are computer sciences, cognitive science, psychology, mathematics, logic, information theory, electronics, communications, linguistics, economics, classification science, systems science, library science and management science.

Library and Information Science: Its Content and Scope

Table of contents: 1. Content analysis of LIS publications; 4. Facet-analytical classifications of LIS; 4. Domain-analytical studies of LIS; 4. Abstract : This article outlines the history of library and information science LIS , from its roots in library science, information science and documentation.

The main argument of the article is that answers to all such questions concerning LIS are related to conceptions of LIS. It is argued that an updated version of social epistemology SE , which was founded by Egan and Shera in , may in hindsight provide the most fruitful theoretical frame for LIS. This article considers library and information science LIS as a field of study a discipline or an inter-discipline. It is written from the viewpoint that it is important to focus not only on the specific problems of a domain, but also on its identity and organization.

A discipline or inter-discipline is an organization which supports cooperation in achieving common goals and sharing disciplinary journals, conferences and institutions, among other things.

It is important, however, that we intend to shape an identity, and therefore are concerned with the field in which we are working. The article is intended, however, to present a broad view of the field, that may be useful for further studies and debate.

However, the present article is written from the viewpoint that KO is a subfield of LIS, and that the history and theoretical issues of LIS are therefore important for researchers in KO to consider. Library and information science is, as the name implies, a combination of two fields: i library science; and ii information science. The joint term is associated with schools of library and information science SLIS.

The first use of this combined term was in the School of Library Science at the University of Pittsburgh, which added information science to its name in cf. Galvin Thereafter followed other American library schools, and by the s almost all former library schools had added information science to their names. A similar development has taken place in many other parts of the world [2] , although not all institutions have made the same choice [3].

This shift in naming has generally been motivated by a growing emphasis on the application of new electronic and computer technologies. Sometimes the plural term library and information sciences is used to underline the fact that more research areas are involved. These authors list xiii the following disciplines as being covered by the LIS disciplines and by their encyclopedia [5] :. Another variation is to speak of library and information studies , in order to emphasize that the field is not necessarily scientific in its strictest sense.

A new tendency in the twenty-first century is to drop the word library and to use only the terms information school , i-school or iSchool. This is not, however, solely a new name for LIS, but represents a new interdisciplinary merging of various fields including LIS [6]. Whether such a merging is considered fruitful or not depends among other things on the theoretical perspective cf. Section 5. For those who primarily consider LIS to be related to computer science, it seems to be clearly a productive solution; however, for those who consider LIS to be more related to the knowledge fields such as philosophy, social epistemology SE and sociology of science it may perhaps seem less successful.

For more details on iSchools, see Lopatovska and Ransom and Section 4. In practice, the term LIS is sometimes used for an area that is not science or research, a scholarship or an academic discipline ; by implication, the term library and information science research may be used to make the research focus explicit [7] e.

Stielow Some studies of the field distinguish between professional publications and research articles, such as that of Tuomaala et al. Even if studies are limited to research articles, it has been questioned whether the literature qualifies as research. Turcios et al. The status of LIS as a science has been discussed for many years. Librarian and researcher Carl S. Petersen wrote: Library technique is a common term for the methods used for organizing, cataloging, use, and administration etc.

Despite various trends towards merging the two fields, some consider library science and information science to be separate fields or disciplines, for example Miksa and Saracevic Huang and Chang , wrote:. In general, however, the tendency today is to use the terms information science and library and information science as synonyms [9].

However, in order to speak of library science as an organized activity, we must go further forward in history. The term Bibliothek-Wissenschaft was used for the first time in the title of a German textbook Schrettinger , the first issue of which was published in Martin Schrettinger — , Friedrich Adolf Ebert — and Karl Dziatzko — were the founders of library science in Germany. Weigel in the period — Although this particular school ran into difficulties, possibly because women were thereby allowed access to academia, Dewey was able to transfer the school to the New York State Library in Albany in ; since then, many library schools have been founded in the United States and Canada and around the world.

Richardson describes aspects of the early history of library science in the United States. For both the European and the American schools, it has been discussed whether the term science is misplaced. Miksa , found, however: Early library education, including Melvil Dewey's School of Library Economy at Columbia College, has traditionally been thought to have emphasized vocational-technical skills rather than substantive intellectual issues.

New evidence for the first two lecture sessions of Dewey's school raises questions about that view. The schedule of the school, its faculty including regular Columbia College professors , and the way the school's topical content of library economy and bibliography was approached strongly suggest an educational venture with unexpected intellectual substance.

More evidence is needed before extrapolating these findings to early library education in general. However, the following quote from Stielow , is probably more representative of the view of library research:. Butler authored a programmatic essay entitled An Introduction to Library Science Wersig , p. As long as there are no disciplines like 'hospital science' or 'jailhouse science' in existence, something like 'library science' is not very convincing [14]. Note that library science and librarianship are here considered synonyms, again indicating that we are not necessarily speaking about a science or a field of research.

In schools of librarianship, the processes that librarians were supposed to master each of these subfields has its own huge subject literature were taught, in particular:.

Other important subfields include: Library history The social function of libraries [16] For some subfields, such as library history, library architecture and library administration, the term library science is meaningful.

However, the knowledge needed to organize document collections and search for documents and information is not specific to libraries. The term documentation and, later, information science therefore became influential in the field [17]. The term information science has been traced back to Jason Farradane — in an article Farradane about the education of information scientists , a term introduced by Farradane , which he considered a synonym for documentalists [18].

Fields such as library science, the science of bibliography, scientific information and documentation were predecessors of information science, as pointed out by Kline , 19 :. One of the most important indicators of the relationship between documentation and information science is the change in name of the American Documentation Institute founded in in to the American Society for Information Science [19]. What then, if anything, was new in information science? Aftab et al.

In the years following , there was much talk of the information explosion [22] and the need to apply information technology to manage this explosion. The term information storage and retrieval ISR was common cf. This is, of course, true for digital communication: the content is coded into a digital format and later decoded back. This coding is, however, a computer science issue rather than an information science issue. Similarly, however, in information science, the idea became common that documents had to be classified or indexed using an indexing language and later retrieved by the user by the same indexing language e.

The entry concerning libraries was written by Shera , who later wrote Shera , :. Eugene Eli Garfield — was an important information scientist.

The focus is not primarily on libraries but on journals, citation patterns and the whole scholarly communication system, its actors, systems, institutions, processes and products. Garfield was also much engaged in providing practical solutions for problems in scientific communication and is one of the few people in the field who has been economically successful by creating innovative solutions. Are there more information sciences? Do people use this term for different fields?

Is the term a homonym? Many researchers seem to confirm that this is the case, for example Fairthorne , Yuexiao and Wersig , :. Rayward , discusses library and information science, on the one hand, and computer and information science, on the other. It is not clear, however, whether he sees these as two different information sciences. Another example is the Journal of Information Science and Technology ISSN , which appears to be somewhat different from other journals about information science.

But when does a journal belong to a given field, and when not? A study by Schneider may also illuminate the nature of information science [28]. This view of information science was formulated very sharply by Machlup and Mansfield , 22 , who suggested that:.

We may therefore conclude that information science is an unclear label a floating signifier and that there is a great need for clarification and for improved terminological hygiene. The field of documentation [29] is associated with the movement founded by Paul Otlet — and Henri Lafontaine — The relationship between librarianship and documentation has been described in the following way Meadows , 59 :.

British librarian and documentalist Samuel C. Bradford — wrote the first British textbook on documentation Bradford ; , and the Journal of Documentation — was and perhaps still is the leading British journal [30].

An American account was Shera The field of documentation concerned subject literature, abstracting journals, special libraries, archives, classification, the application of new technologies in scientific communication at that time, in particular, microfilm technology , the study of bibliometrics e.

Otlet was even concerned with developing a new kind of encyclopedia The Encyclopedia Universalis Mundaneum , and saw this as being closely linked to his bibliographical project. Documentation was thus a broad field. It was debated at the time whether documentation was a part of librarianship or vice versa cf. In the Copernican universe, traditional libraries are but planets, while knowledge production and dissemination, centralized information systems and the scientific literature form the central star.

The content area of documentation was thus not very different from that mentioned in Section 2. When electronic databases became common in the s and s, searching was done by intermediaries referred to as research librarians, documentalists or information specialists. Online intermediation was the last common job function involving documentation in relation to information work: Danish research libraries, for example, had documentation departments until about However, with the arrival of end-user searching, this function was downgraded in most places cf.

Library and information science

Library and information science LIS sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences [1] [2] or " library and information studies " [3] is a merging of library science and information science. The joint term is associated with schools of library and information science abbreviated to "SLIS". In the last part of the s, schools of librarianship , which generally developed from professional training programs not academic disciplines to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in Weaver Press: Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In spite of various trends to merge the two fields, some consider the two original disciplines, library science and information science , to be separate.

Library and Information Science LIS is the academic and professional study of how information and information carriers are produced, disseminated, discovered, evaluated, selected, acquired, used, organized, maintained, and managed. This book intends to introduce the reader to fundamental concerns and emerging conversations in the field of library and information science. A secondary goal of this book is to introduce readers to prominent writers, articles, and books within the field of library science. The book originated as a collection of annotations of important LIS articles. Though these citations are being developed into a fuller text, we hope that this book remains firmly rooted in the literature of LIS and related fields, and helps direct readers toward important resources when a particular topic strikes their fancy.

Table of contents: 1. Content analysis of LIS publications; 4. Facet-analytical classifications of LIS; 4. Domain-analytical studies of LIS; 4. Abstract : This article outlines the history of library and information science LIS , from its roots in library science, information science and documentation.

Library and information science

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. LISR does not normally publish technical information science studies e. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.

LIS professionals give users a chance to explore the learning environment beyond the classrooms. American Library Association defines library consortia as a networks and cooperatives to leverage staff and resources, in order to provide cost-effective and efficient services libraries individually could not afford. It also revealed the strategies for overcoming the challenges of developing electronic resources to include constant evaluation of automation facilities, adequate and regular systems upgrade, provision of skilled manpower and periodic and regular training of librarians and paraprofessionals in the use of modern information and communication technology facilities. James G.

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 Т-ты… - заикаясь, он перевел взгляд на ее непроколотые уши, - ты, случайно, серег не носила. В ее глазах мелькнуло подозрение. Она достала из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула. Беккер увидел в ее руке сережку в виде черепа.

У нас были бы красивые дети, - подумал. - Чем ты занята? - спросил Хейл, пробуя иной подход. Сьюзан ничего не ответила. - Я вижу, ты выдающийся командный игрок.

5 Comments

SГ©bastien L.
02.04.2021 at 15:52 - Reply

– National Autonomous University of México Research Institute of Library Science and Information Library Science or Librarianship has been defined as the systematic body of knowledge related to the book and the library, including diverse aspects dealing with books as autonomous entities, but also those related to the.

Gematedi
04.04.2021 at 16:49 - Reply

Weigel in the period – Schrettinger () (translated definition cited from. Schrader , 36) held that library science encompasses.

Karem C.
07.04.2021 at 16:30 - Reply

library as an organization of information resources meant for use. The Issues. The above perceptions underpin the justification for a variety of definitions.

Guithemoncu
07.04.2021 at 20:13 - Reply

Reitz holds a B.

Kranercredar1950
09.04.2021 at 22:40 - Reply

Joan M.

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