Economics Of Gender And Development In Hindi Pdf


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Trade & Gender

Gender mainstreaming has been embraced internationally as a strategy towards realising gender equality. It involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, regulatory measures and spending programmes, with a view to promoting equality between women and men, and combating discrimination.

Gender mainstreaming ensures that policy-making and legislative work is of higher quality and has a greater relevance for society, because it makes policies respond more effectively to the needs of all citizens — women and men, girls and boys. Gender mainstreaming makes public interventions more effective and ensures that inequalities are not perpetuated.

Gender mainstreaming does not only aim to avoid the creation or reinforcement of inequalities, which can have adverse effects on both women and men. It also implies analysing the existing situation, with the purpose of identifying inequalities, and developing policies which aim to redress these inequalities and undo the mechanisms that caused them. At European level, the EU Institutions are in charge of implementing gender mainstreaming, whereas at national level, it is up to the governments of Member States.

However, it is not only the responsibility of specific individuals working in certain areas or units. While specific structures should be established and persons responsible appointed, the responsibility for implementing gender mainstreaming should be with the entire staff of public institutions, under the leadership of the management. Learn more about the responsible structures in the EU institutions.

Learn more about the responsible structures in the EU Member States. A political commitment for gender equality and a compatible legal framework are the basic conditions for the development of a successful gender mainstreaming strategy. In addition to concrete objectives and targets in the strategy, gender mainstreaming requires a clear action plan. Such plan should take into account the context, satisfy the necessary conditions, cover all the relevant dimensions, foresee the use of concrete methods and tools, set out the responsibilities and make sure that the necessary competences exist to achieve the anticipated results within a planned time frame.

Gender mainstreaming requires both integrating a gender perspective to the content of the different policies, and addressing the issue of representation of women and men in the given policy area. Both dimensions — gender representation and gender responsive content - need to be taken into consideration in all phases of the policy-making process.

Addressing the issue of representation means looking at the representation of women and men as policy beneficiaries, as well as their representation in the labour force and in the decision making processes. Women are beneficiaries of EU policies to the same extent as men. Yet, compared to men, they are significantly underrepresented in decision-making positions.

The representation of women and men working in different policy areas varies across policy sectors and according to the type of work or functions.

For instance, women are underrepresented in the renewable energy sector They are generally employed in lower-skilled jobs primarily in administration and communication , while more skilled and better paid jobs are primarily held by men. In the field of education, women are overrepresented as teachers at the levels of primary and lower secondary education, but their representation within decision-making positions is rather low, especially in tertiary education.

When there is an unbalanced participation of women and men in the planning and decision-making processes on policy actions, this may affect the outcomes that impact both women and men.

Policies benefit from diverse perspectives: a more balanced representation of both sexes would bring in different experiences that may improve the decision-making process and overall results. Addressing the issue of representation within institutions also involves addressing the gender dimension of the organisational structures and the working procedures.

Learn more about Institutional Transformation. Although numbers are important, it is pertinent to also consider how gender relates to the content of policy measures, to gain a better understanding of how women and men would benefit from them.

A gender responsive policy ensures that the needs of all citizens, women and men, are equally addressed. Traditionally, government policy and legislation have been viewed as gender-neutral instruments, on the assumption that a public policy benefits all members of the public equally. However, structural gender inequalities are still embedded in our society. Even if the laws treat women and men as equals, women still do not have equal access to and control over resources and assets.

Policies focused on the general public often impact women and men differently. If these different gender impacts are not taken into account, the policy will be gender-blind. To avoid this, it is necessary to take into account the different needs and interests of women and men, to identify gender inequalities in access to and control of resources, to consider the impact of gender based stereotypes and traditional gender roles, to anticipate different effects on women and men, and to ensure gender equality.

Learn more about the importance of gender in the main EU policy areas. A gender impact assessment is the first step towards avoiding policies that fail to take into account a gender perspective. Learn how to conduct a Gender Impact Assessment.

An effective implementation of gender mainstreaming requires preparation and organisation. People in decision-making positions can make a particular difference here, as they have more power to introduce changes. The policy process is understood as a multi-stage cycle, including defining, planning, implementing and checking monitoring and evaluating.

In many cases, these stages are turned into a cycle, with each step being repeated as changes occur. For example, when a policy is evaluated, it may reveal new problems that need to be addressed for re-programming. The chart below refers to the specific stages of the cycle and the necessary elements that need to be given attention within each stage.

Specific gender mainstreaming methods and tools that should be used within each of the cycle stages are also included.

Some methods and tools, such as consulting with stakeholders or providing gender equality training to the actors involved, can be useful in more than one stage. Moreover, it is important to remember that when dealing with data they should be sex-disaggregated. For more information on the different stages of the gender mainstreaming cycle, click on each phase. Gender mainstreaming is not a policy goal in itself, but a means to achieve gender equality.

Equality between women and men is recognised by the EU as a fundamental right, a common value of the EU, and a necessary condition for the achievement of the EU objectives of growth, employment and social cohesion. Both approaches go hand in hand, and one cannot replace the other. Treaty of Rome. The Treaty incorporates the principle of equal pay for equal work Art Treaty of Amsterdam. The Treaty substantially strengthened the legal basis for Community action in favour of equality between women and men.

Articles 2 and 3 of the Treaty formalise the Community commitment to gender mainstreaming by establishing equality between women and men as a specific task of the Community as well as a horizontal objective affecting all Community policies and programmes. European Parliament resolution on gender mainstreaming in the European Parliament: The Parliament adopted its first Resolution on gender mainstreaming, which contains a commitment to regularly adopting and implementing a policy plan for gender mainstreaming, and suggests some guidelines for implementing gender mainstreaming in the committees' and delegations' policy work.

Article 19 of the TFEU provides the legal base for EU legislation combatting discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. Communication "Non-discrimination and equal opportunities: A renewed commitment".

Treaty of Lisbon. The Treaty includes enhancements to the social dimension of the European Union. It adds the non-discrimination principle and equality between women and men to the values of the European Union Article 2 TEU and mandates that the Union shall combat discrimination and promote equality between women and men Article 3 TEU.

Charter of Fundamental Rights. Article 21 Article 21 affirms the principle of non-discrimination based on any ground, including sex. In this Strategy, the Commission has specified gender equality goals for each priority field. In addition, all Directorates-General have to assess the impact of gender equality: 1 as part of the social impact of the Impact Assessment exercise, 2 in evaluation, and 3 in the budget, where relevant.

The actions demonstrate the commitment of these Directorates-General concerning gender equality in their policy field. It also suggests what EU officials and civil servants in the EU countries can practically do to take account of gender aspects in their daily tasks and responsibilities.

Understanding how to design, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate policies from a gender perspective will strengthen EU policies, increase their societal relevance and responsiveness. The focus of this online Platform is on gender as a social category. Skip to language switcher Skip to main categories navigation Skip to secondary categories navigation Skip to current category navigation Skip to main navigation Skip to main content Skip to related content Skip to footer.

Assess the needs 2. Integrate initiatives to broader strategy 3. Ensure sufficient resources 4. Write good terms of reference 5. Select a trainer Implementation phase 6. Engage in the needs assessment 7. Actively participate in the initiative 8. Invite others to join in 9. Monitoring framework and procedures Evaluation and follow-up phase Set up an evaluation framework Assess long-term impacts Creating accountability and strengthening commitment 2. Allocating resources 3.

Conducting an organisational analysis 4. Developing a strategy and work plan Implementation phase 5. Establishing a support structure 6. Setting gender equality objectives 7. Communicating gender mainstreaming 8. Introducing gender mainstreaming 9. Developing gender equality competence Establishing a gender information management system Launching gender equality action plans Promotional equal opportunities Evaluation and follow-up phase Monitoring and steering organisational change Dealing with resistance Discourse level Individual level Organisational level Statements and reactions Checklist: Key questions for change Examples from the EU Preparation phase 1.

Strengthening accountability 2. Organisational analysis 4. Developing a strategy and working plan Implementation phase 5. Setting objectives 7.

Gender and media

Media play important roles in society. They report on current events, provide frameworks for interpretation, mobilise citizens with regard to various issues, reproduce predominant culture and society, and entertain Llanos and Nina, As such, the media can be an important actor in the promotion of gender equality, both within the working environment in terms of employment and promotion of female staff at all levels and in the representation of women and men in terms of fair gender portrayal and the use of neutral and non-gender specific language. White, A. This handbook aims to assist people working in the media to assess progress on gender equality, identify challenges, and contribute to debates and policy formulation.

Gender mainstreaming has been embraced internationally as a strategy towards realising gender equality. It involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, regulatory measures and spending programmes, with a view to promoting equality between women and men, and combating discrimination. Gender mainstreaming ensures that policy-making and legislative work is of higher quality and has a greater relevance for society, because it makes policies respond more effectively to the needs of all citizens — women and men, girls and boys. Gender mainstreaming makes public interventions more effective and ensures that inequalities are not perpetuated. Gender mainstreaming does not only aim to avoid the creation or reinforcement of inequalities, which can have adverse effects on both women and men.


Read "Economics Of Gender And Development" by A. Ranjan available from Rakuten Kobo. Women are essential to economic growth in developing countries​.


What is gender mainstreaming

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries.

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Gender is a complex variable that is a part of social, cultural, economic and political contexts.

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 Багаж, сеньор. Я могу вам помочь. - Спасибо, не. Мне нужен консьерж. На лице привратника появилась обиженная гримаса, словно Беккер чем-то его оскорбил. - Рог aqui, senor.  - Он проводил Беккера в фойе, показал, где находится консьерж, и поспешил исчезнуть.

Беккер не мог исчезнуть, тем более так. Халохот оглядел дворик. Он. Он должен быть. Дворик под названием Апельсиновый сад прославился благодаря двум десяткам апельсиновых деревьев, которые приобрели в городе известность как место рождения английского мармелада. В XVI11 веке некий английский купец приобрел у севильской церкви три десятка бушелей апельсинов и, привезя их в Лондон, обнаружил, что фрукты горькие и несъедобные.

Gender and development

Странно, - подумал Беккер, - интересно, откуда же взялся шрам.

Он вот-вот задавит. Уже теряя сознание, она рванулась к свету, который пробивался из приоткрытой двери гостиничного номера, и успела увидеть руку, сжимающую пистолет с глушителем. Яркая вспышка - и все поглотила черная бездна. ГЛАВА 40 Стоя у двери Третьего узла, Чатрукьян с безумным видом отчаянно пытался убедить Хейла в том, что с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ стряслась беда.

Внезапно его швырнуло назад, и он больно ударился спиной о кожух генератора. Пытаясь подняться на ноги, Стратмор в ужасе смотрел на предмет, зажатый в его пальцах: это была рука Чатрукьяна, обломившаяся в локтевом суставе. Наверху Сьюзан ждала возвращения коммандера, сидя на диване в Третьем узле словно парализованная.

Беккер еще сильнее вцепился во внутреннюю часть проема и оттолкнулся ногами. Тело налилось свинцовой тяжестью, словно кто-то изо всех сил тянул его .

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Gender and development is an interdisciplinary field of research and applied study that implements a feminist approach to understanding and addressing the disparate impact that economic development and globalization have on people based upon their location, gender, class background, and other socio-political identities.

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