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- Constitution of India
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution
- THE MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: 9 December 1946 - 26 January 1950
- The story behind making of the world's longest written constitution
Constitution of India
Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution The third thing we must do is not be content with mere political democracy. We must note that our political democracy can not last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life.
Ambedkar In the world the great man first has to be born in the form of the great man and then he has to prove himself the great man by his enriched personality with virtues and by his great capability.
According to such a rule of the world Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian nationalist, jurist, Dalit, political leader, activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, profilic writer, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and the revivalist of Buddhism in India.
He was also the chief architect of the Indian constitution. Born into a poor untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the Hindu categorization of human society into four varnas — and the Indian Caste System. The great man Dr. Childhood and Early Life of B. Ambedkar The ancestral village of Dr.
Ambedkar is Ambavade, which is located in Rathagiri District of Maharashtra state and is located about 5 miles from Madhavgarh, which is a small village. Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14th April in village Mahu in a Mahar Caste, which was considered to be of the untouchables. One summer he, along with his brother and cousin, went to Gorgaon to meet his father.
They had written a letter to his father but his father had not received it in time and, therefore, he did not come to the railway station to receive his children. The boys facing the difficulty of transport requested the station master for help, who after persuasions could rent a bullock cart for these children. Hardly has the cart gone few yards when the cart man came to know that the well dressed children sitting in his cart were untouchables, and in a fit of rage he threw them out on the road as one overthrows the dustbins; for he felt that his bullocks had got polluted by the touch of the untouchables.
After few days Bhimrao faced another bitter experience. He was very thirsty, one day and was drinking water from a public water course. Savarns saw this, and felt that this kid has polluted their drinking water, and they beat Bhimrao black and blue. However, all Brahmins are not alike. There are exceptions. There was one Brahmin teacher in his high school. He loved Bhimrao very much. He dropped portions of his meals into the hands of Bhim daily during his recess. But the family name of the teacher who loved Bhimrao was Ambedkar.
And in the school register, he noted it according. Bhimrao very gracefully accepted this new family name given to him by his beloved teacher. And for the rest of his life, he lived with that last name. Ambedkar has always remembered this teacher for his life time. Education of B. Ambedkar Dr. Ambedkar was the most ambitious leader, pursuer of the target, strong willed, determined, discreet, courageous, hardworking, studious thoughtful, self respecting, expert in work, dutiful, devoted recipient of the highest degrees, manifold knowledgeable, good user of the knowledge for the welfare of the people.
The Maharaja Sayaji Rao of Baroda, a progressive untouchable student for higher studies Ambedkar welcomed the opportunity and joined Elphinstone College. He was granted a scholarship of rupees twenty five per month. Professor Muller lent him books and gave him clothes. But the insulting environment never changed. The college hotel-keeper who was a Brahmin would not give him tea or water. Ambedkar did not mind such inconveniences and humiliating treatment.
He concentrated her energy on studies and passed his B. Ambedkar was one of them. On June 4, , he signed an agreement with the Baroda State authorities and in the third week of July, , he joined Columbia University as a Gaekwad Scholar.
He was the first Mahar to study in a foreign university. In June , he obtained the M. It was published in the Indian Antiquary in May In June , Ambedkar submitted his thesis for the degree of Ph. In November , he joined as Professor of Political Economy in Sydenham College, Bombay and resigned in March from his post to resume his studies in law and economics in London.
Economics degree. The thesis was published in December, , by P. King and Company, London. This book had an introduction by Professor Cannan. Ambedkar was called to the Bar in April In London he met E. Montagw, Secretary of State for India and Vithalbhai Patel, and had talks with them in respect of the grievances of the untouchables in India.
The University of Columbia had highly respected Dr. Ambedkar by awarding him the honorary degree of LL. In India also the University of Osmaniya had gracefully honoured Dr.
Ambedkar, in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh by awarding the highest degree of D. Thus, the great man Bharat Ratna Dr.
Ambedkar had obtained B. There degrees were like the very attractive jeweled ornaments of the gold, which were growing the respect, glory and dignity of the Shining Personality of Dr. Ambedkar for preparing a draft of the Constitution of the independent India. It is said when drafting of the Constitution of India was embarked upon, Pandit Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel thought of inviting and consulting Sir Guor Jennings, as internationally known constitutional expert of those times.
When approached for advice in the matter Gandhiji is reported to have told them why they should be looking for foreign experts when they had the right within India an outstanding legal and constitutional expert in Dr. Ambedkar who ought to be entrusted with the role which they badly need as he so richly and rightly deserved. The Law Minister Dr. Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
Ambedkar, Chairman 2 N. Goipalswami 3 Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyas 4 K. Munshi 5 Saijio Mola Saadulla 6 N. Madhava Rao and 7 D. Khaitan Dr. Ambedkar was honoured step by step. At the first step he was honoured as the member of the Constituent Assembly. Because of his bright characteristics, as his deep and vast study, tremendous knowledge, amazing command of an English language, expertness in explaining the subject and ideal patriotism, he had got these pleasant honours.
Ambedkar had a charismatic personality. He was pragmatic par excellence, who never allowed himself to be swayed by abstract ideas and ideals. He strongly believed that political independence cannot assure either social solidarity or national integration in the absence of social justice. Being a democratic socialist, he propagated that fundamental rights have little meaning to people in the absence of social democracy.
Ambedkar was one of the very few Indian Statesmen-politicians who actively participated in the discussions on Constitutional matters from the Monsford Reforms to the Cabinet Mission proposals. He was the first and foremost leader of the depressed classes, and the struggle of the depressed classes for Human Rights and socio-political equality from the twenties to the fifties of the 20th century is woven round his name Being elected Chairman of the Drafting Committee, Dr.
Ambedkar played a key role in viewing the structure of the government and the forms of the Constitution. Being invited to discuss on constitutional matters Dr. The time when you were to choose and India was to accept is gone, never to return. Ambedkar did not want to impose a Constitution on the Indians, but he submitted that the opinion of the people about the manner in which they desired to be governed must be accepted.
Ambedkar played a very significant role with a lofty responsibility of drafting the Constitution. He examined the functioning of a democratic government on the basis of stability and responsibility. However, the Draft Constitution he recommended that the parliamentary of executive must have more responsibility to stability. It established a dual polity with the Union at the Centre and the States at the periphery, each endowed with sovereign powers to be exercised in the field assigned to them respectively by the Constitution.
Concept Of Federalism His concept of federalism meant that the State was a federation in normalcy, but unitary in emergency. Ambedkar offered more powers to the Centre and made it strong. Some members of the constituent assembly criticised him on the ground that since Dr. Ambedkar postulated — the rights and values of each individual and the development of each province and each—village, it was contradictory of his part to make the Centre strong.
Justifying the provisions for a strong Central authority Dr. Of all the rights, Dr. Regarding the constitutional remedies, he characterize Article 32 as the very soul of the Constitution and the very heart of it. To him, fundamental rights would mean establishment of equality and liberty in order to reform our social system, which is so full of inequalities discriminations, and other which conflict with our fundamental rights.
The Directives were meant to ensure social and economic democracy which was secured by the provisions of fundamental rights in a written Constitution.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution
Constituent Assembly. CADIndia Blog. ConQuest Supreme Court. Supreme Court Observer. Constituent Assembly Debates.
THE MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: 9 December 1946 - 26 January 1950
His publication, Spirit of the Laws , is considered one of the great works in the history of political theory and jurisprudence, and it inspired the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution of the United States. Under his model, the political authority of the state is divided into legislative, executive and judicial powers. He asserted that, to most effectively promote liberty, these three powers must be separate and acting independently.
The inaugural session began with Acharya J. Kriplani introducing Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha, the oldest member of the Assembly, who was proposed as its chair. Speech by Dr.
The story behind making of the world's longest written constitution
The Constitution has become a part of the language of protest. A look at pivotal moments in its year journey The Constitution has survived seven decades despite many assaults by Parliament and the judiciary. And Indians know they are governed by the words of the Constitution. Starting with Articles and 8 Schedules, it now stands at over Articles and 12 Schedules—a result of amendments. These amendments have changed essential aspects of the republic, such as fundamental rights, federalism, democratic participation, judicial review, etc.
Ambedkar, The Father of Indian Constitution The third thing we must do is not be content with mere political democracy. We must note that our political democracy can not last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life. Ambedkar In the world the great man first has to be born in the form of the great man and then he has to prove himself the great man by his enriched personality with virtues and by his great capability.
There have been sharp divisions of opinion throughout Fiji's modern history between those advocating an integrated, nonracial state, based on individual rights, and those in favor of a political order based on ethnic communities. Integration and consociation, perhaps, are not apt terms to categorize this division, but, certainly, they have some resonance. Many features associated with consociation have been present in the colonial and the postcolonial constitutions, such as separate communal representation, group rights, asymmetrical autonomy, power sharing, separate educational systems, and entrenchment of rights to culture and land. But there have also been strong tendencies toward political integration and broad-based, nonethnic social justice policies. Fiji's experience shows that this polarity has limited intellectual or policy value.
Ambedkar Chairman of the Drafting Committee. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth. It imparts constitutional supremacy not parliamentary supremacy , since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November and became effective on 26 January To ensure constitutional autochthony , its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article The constitution declares India a sovereign , socialist , secular ,  and democratic republic , assures its citizens justice , equality and liberty , and endeavours to promote fraternity. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in during the Emergency.
It had, over the course of the previous year, passed through two readings already. This was to be the final round. Naziruddin Ahmad, a Constituent Assembly member representing West Bengal, had persistently been a staunch and vocal critic of the draft Constitution ever since it first made its appearance in the Assembly on 4 November , at the time of the first reading. He squarely placed the blame on the Drafting Committee for these problems. These outward criticisms of the draft Constitution were fuelled by an inward suspicion of the Drafting Committee itself.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
Фонтейну нужен был кто-то способный наблюдать за Стратмором, следить, чтобы он не потерял почву под ногами и оставался абсолютно надежным, но это было не так-то. Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично. Он распорядился установить жучок в личном компьютере Стратмора - чтобы контролировать его электронную почту, его внутриведомственную переписку, а также мозговые штурмы, которые тот время от времени предпринимал.
Он жестом предложил старику перешагнуть через него, но тот пришел в негодование и еле сдержался. Подавшись назад, он указал на целую очередь людей, выстроившихся в проходе. Беккер посмотрел в другую сторону и увидел, что женщина, сидевшая рядом, уже ушла и весь ряд вплоть до центрального прохода пуст. Не может быть, что служба уже закончилась.
Я не знаю, кто вы такой и чего хотите, но если вы немедленно отсюда не уйдете, я вызову службу безопасности отеля и настоящая полиция арестует вас за попытку выдать себя за полицейского офицера. Беккер знал, что Стратмор в пять минут вызволит его из тюрьмы, но понимал, что это дело надо завершить совершенно .