Basic Concept Of Food And Nutrition PdfBy Fayme A. In and pdf 30.03.2021 at 23:42 6 min read
File Name: basic concept of food and nutrition .zip
Nutrition is defined as the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilises food substances.
- How to Explain Basic Nutrition Concepts
- Introduction to Nutrition
- The basics of nutrition in 8 parts
- Food & Nutrition
Use these illustrations when helping educate Central American communities. You can download and print full-size versions by clicking on the thumbnail-size versions below.
January 22, Healthy eating habits are at the core of a healthy lifestyle. With so much information out there, deciding what to eat, how much to eat, and when to eat can be confusing. This First Shots blog will offer some simple guidelines to get you started on creating healthy eating habits that will serve you for a lifetime. Let's begin with a working definition of nutrition: healthful eating emphasizing portion control and consumption of fruits and vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, and foods that are minimally processed and low in saturated fats.
How to Explain Basic Nutrition Concepts
Nutrition is defined as the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilises food substances. In humans, nutrition is mainly achieved through the process of putting foods into our mouths, chewing and swallowing it. The required amounts of the essential nutrients differ by age and the state of the body, for example: physical activity, diseases present e.
Nutrition is essential for growth and development, health and wellbeing. Eating a healthy diet contributes to preventing future illness and improving quality and length of life.
Your nutritional status is the state of your health as determined by what you eat. There are several ways of assessing nutritional status, including anthropometric i. Your body mass index BMI is a good indicator of your nutritional status. It takes into account your weight and height, and correlates well with total body fat expressed as a percentage of body weight.
The correlation depends on age, with the highest correlation seen in ages 26—55 years and the lowest in the young and the elderly. If you take your weight in kilograms and divide it by your height in metres squared, the figure you obtain is your BMI. This information will be collected for educational purposes, however it will remain anonymous.
BMI is not the best measure of weight and health risk. For adults who have stopped growing, an increase in BMI is usually caused by an increase in body fat. But as children grow, their amount of body fat changes and so will their BMI. For example, BMI usually decreases during the preschool years and then increases into adulthood. For this reason, a BMI calculation for a child or an adolescent must be compared against age and gender percentile charts. These charts should be used only by health professionals such as your general practitioner, child health nurse, or dietitian.
Men, in particular, often deposit weight in the waist region. Studies have shown that the distribution of body fat is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes , hypertension , high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Being physically active , avoiding smoking and eating unsaturated fat instead of saturated fat have been shown to decrease the risk of developing abdominal obesity. When there is an imbalance between your nutrient requirements and your intake, malnutrition sets in.
There are two forms of malnutrition — under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Over-nutrition is common in many developed countries, including Australia. Nutrients can be described as the chemical components of food and can be classified into six broad groups: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.
Water is not technically a nutrient, but it is essential for the utilisation of nutrients. Nutrients perform various functions in our bodies, including energy provision and maintaining vital processes such as digestion, breathing, growth and development. Your energy requirement depends on your age, size and activity level. If your energy intake equals the amount of energy you expend, then you are in energy balance. If your intake exceeds your expenditure, the excess energy is converted to body fat and you gain weight.
On the other hand, if your intake is less than your expenditure, your body uses up fat stores and you lose weight. Therefore, for weight to remain stable, the total amount of calories that are consumed must not exceed the total that is used up through metabolic processes e. Energy intake must match energy output. Carbohydrates can be classified as monosaccharide e. Carbohydrates must be reduced to the simplest form of glucose through digestion before your body can make use of them.
In some situations, the body can compensate for decreased levels of carbohydrates by using alternative energy pathways such as burning fatty acids. Protein is important for the production, maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. When energy intake is insufficient, protein intake must be raised. This is because ingested proteins are preferentially directed towards glucose sugar synthesis and oxidation.
The tissues and organs in the body are made up of protein and protein compounds. Enzymes biological catalysts , antibodies and hormones also consist of protein. The building blocks of protein are called amino acids. The body can make all of the 20 amino acids except eight, which are termed essential amino acids. These are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Histidine is essential only for infants. For adults, the recommended dietary allowance of protein is about 0.
Animal products tend to have the highest amount of proteins, followed by legumes beans , cereals rice, wheat, corn and roots. Protein derived from plants lack one or two essential amino acids. However, a good combination of plant-based protein can be of equal value to animal protein.
For example, legumes lack methionine but have adequate amounts of lysine. Cereals, on the other hand, lack lysine but have a lot of methionine. Therefore, a mixture of rice and beans will supply all the essential amino acids. Excess protein cannot be stored in the body, so we need to consume protein daily. Consuming too much protein is not recommended because it promotes increased calcium excretion through urine , which increases the risk of developing osteoporosis.
Additionally, too much protein intake may lead to a greater concentration of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood, and the subsequent conversion to thiolactone. Thiolactone is associated with increased levels of atherosclerosis and endothelial damage.
Most of the fats we consume occur in foods as triglycerides. A triglyceride is comprised of three fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule. Fatty acids are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms and can be either saturated or unsaturated.
Saturated fatty acids SFA have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon chain, while unsaturated fatty acids have less than the required hydrogen atoms. For example, monounsaturated fatty acids e. Monounsaturated fats are found mainly in nuts, avocados, olive oil, canola oil, grapeseed oil, peanut oil, flaxseed oil, sesame oil, corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, etc.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA have more than two hydrogen atoms missing e. Linoleic and linolenic acids are regarded as essential fatty acids EFAs because the body cannot make them. There are two categories of EFAs: omega-3 and omega Omega-3 fatty acids are derived from linolenic acid and omega-6 from linoleic acid. Sources of omega-6 fats include palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, nuts, etc. Evidence from research indicates that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and help prevent certain chronic diseases such as heart disease and arthritis.
Omega-3 fatty acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be crucial to brain function as well as normal growth and development. Infants who do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids from their mothers during pregnancy are at risk of mental impairment. Generally, saturated fatty acids raise blood cholesterol levels, whereas unsaturated fatty acids lower them. Saturated fats are found in foods such as butter, meat and dairy fats.
Trans fats are artificially created during food processing. In the body, trans fats act in a similar way to saturated fats and may raise cholesterol levels. These fats are considered to be harmful to your health. Trans fats are found mainly in deep-fried fast foods and processed foods made with margarine. Fats are a concentrated and rich source of energy. The rest of your fat intake should consist of monounsaturated fat. Vitamins constitute a group of nutrients that are needed in small quantities.
Like amino and fatty acids, most vitamins cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Only vitamin D can be manufactured by the body. Essential vitamins are grouped into two families: water soluble and fat soluble. Water soluble vitamins can dissolve in water thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C , folic acid. These cannot be stored by the body and need to be consumed every day.
Fat soluble vitamins can dissolve in a fat medium vitamins A, D, E , K. These are taken into our bodies when we consume fat-containing foods. Vitamins are needed for various reasons, including the formation of hormones and blood cells. They generally act as coenzymes. An inadequate supply of vitamins in our diet leads to the development of diseases.
Minerals are essential, acting as cofactors of enzymes i. Some of the minerals necessary for health are:. The upper limit of daily calcium intake is 2, mg. Speak to your doctor or health professional on how to cut down your intake to the appropriate level. This calculator includes a small number of foods that are rich calcium sources, or that are commonly eaten.
While the calculator may give an estimate of your calcium intake, it should not be relied upon for an accurate assessment of dietary calcium intake. For a comprehensive dietary assessment, see an Accredited Practising Dietitian. Use a calculator or pen and paper to work out from the amounts above how much your daily calcium intake is.
Then use the table below to compare that to your recommended daily intake. For adults, 1—1.
Introduction to Nutrition
Food is any substance  consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant , animal or fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients , such as carbohydrates , fats , proteins , vitamins , or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy , maintain life, or stimulate growth. Different species of animals have different feeding behaviours that satisfy the needs of their unique metabolisms , often evolved to fill a specific ecological niche within specific geographical contexts. Omnivorous humans are highly adaptable and have adapted to obtain food in many different ecosystems. Historically, humans secured food through two main methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture. As agricultural technologies increased, humans settled into agriculture lifestyles with diets shaped by the agriculture opportunities in their geography.
In this study session, you will learn about some of the basics of nutrition. You will learn what is meant by food and diet as well as the meaning of nutrition and nutrients in general. What food does to our body and how the body uses nutrients is also explained. Estimates of the eligible population for nutritional care and support are provided, using calculations from the Ethiopian census data. Finally, the relationship between health, nutrition and development is described, linking them with the Millennium Development Goals. The overall purpose of this session is to teach you some of the basics about nutrition that you will be able to use in your work and will inform your learning throughout the whole of the Module.
Unit 1: Food and Nutrition: Basic Concepts. Chapter 1: Nutritional status and Primary Health Care. Chapter 2: Food: Basic Concept. Chapter 3: Nutrients.
The basics of nutrition in 8 parts
В этом нет необходимости, - ответил на это Беккер. Он так или иначе собирался вернуть деньги. Он поехал в Испанию не ради денег.
Он жестом предложил старику перешагнуть через него, но тот пришел в негодование и еле сдержался. Подавшись назад, он указал на целую очередь людей, выстроившихся в проходе. Беккер посмотрел в другую сторону и увидел, что женщина, сидевшая рядом, уже ушла и весь ряд вплоть до центрального прохода пуст. Не может быть, что служба уже закончилась.
Стратмор попытался убедить Танкадо, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ - это орудие охраны правопорядка, но безуспешно: Танкадо продолжал настаивать на том, что это грубейшее нарушение гражданских прав. Он немедленно уволился и сразу же нарушил Кодекс секретности АНБ, попытавшись вступить в контакт с Фондом электронных границ.
Food & Nutrition
Варианты бесконечны. Конечно, Джабба прав. Поскольку числовая строка бесконечна, всегда можно заглянуть дальше и найти еще одно простое число. Между 0 и 1 000 000 более 70 000 вариантов. Все зависит оттого, что выбрал Танкадо.
Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю. Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно. - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд. - Вы когда-нибудь видели что-либо более ужасное, чем это место? - Он обвел глазами палату.
6. CHANGING CONCEPTS OF NUTRITION • The essential nutrients, proteins, fats and carbohydrates have been recognized in the early 19nth.
Ее зовут… Не отключайся, дружище… - Роса… - Глаза Клушара снова закрылись. Приближающаяся медсестра прямо-таки кипела от возмущения. - Роса? - Беккер сжал руку Клушара. Старик застонал.
За ее спиной ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал предсмертный оглушающий стон. Когда распался последний силиконовый чип, громадная раскаленная лава вырвалась наружу, пробив верхнюю крышку и выбросив на двадцать метров вверх тучу керамических осколков, и в то же мгновение насыщенный кислородом воздух шифровалки втянуло в образовавшийся вакуум. Сьюзан едва успела взбежать на верхнюю площадку лестницы и вцепиться в перила, когда ее ударил мощный порыв горячего ветра. Повернувшись, она увидела заместителя оперативного директора АНБ; он стоял возле ТРАНСТЕКСТА, не сводя с нее глаз. Вокруг него бушевала настоящая буря, но в его глазах она увидела смирение.
- Ну и мерзавец этот Танкадо. ГЛАВА 110 Невидящими глазами Джабба смотрел на распечатку, которую ему вручила Соши. Он побледнел и вытер рукавом пот со лба. - Директор, у нас нет выбора.