Learning To Teach Health And Physical Education PdfBy Martina M. In and pdf 30.03.2021 at 00:14 3 min read
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- Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education
- Learning and Teaching in Physical Education
The following resource material can be used for teaching and learning programmes. All programmes should be based on the needs of students and guided by The New Zealand Curriculum This resource is a revision of Sexuality Education: A guide for principals, boards of trustees, and teachers View online versions of a selection of the Curriculum in Action series supporting the Health and Physical Education in New Zealand curriculum.
Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. P hysical education is a formal content area of study in schools that is standards based and encompasses assessment based on standards and benchmarks. It is an avenue for engaging in developmentally appropriate physical activities designed for children to develop their fitness, gross motor skills, and health Sallis et al.
This chapter 1 provides a perspective on physical education in the context of schooling; 2 elaborates on the importance of physical education to child development; 3 describes the consensus on the characteristics of quality physical education programs; 4 reviews current national, state, and local education policies that affect the quality of physical education; and 5 examines barriers to quality physical education and solutions for overcoming them. Physical education became a subject matter in schools in the form of German and Swedish gymnastics at the beginning of the 19th century Hackensmith, Its role in human health was quickly recognized.
By the turn of the 20th century, personal hygiene and exercise for bodily health were incorporated in the physical education curriculum as the major learning outcomes for students Weston, The exclusive focus on health, however, was criticized by educator Thomas Wood ; Wood and Cassidy, as too narrow and detrimental to the development of the whole child. During the past 15 years, physical education has once again evolved to connect body movement to its consequences e.
This perspective is also emphasized by Siedentop , who states that physical education is education through the physical.
Sallis and McKenzie stress two main goals of physical education: 1 prepare children and youth for a lifetime of physical activity and 2 engage them in physical activity during physical education. These goals represent the lifelong benefits of health-enhancing physical education that enable children and adolescents to become active adults throughout their lives.
This goal dictates a learning environment in which seated learning behavior is considered appropriate and effective and is rewarded. Physical education as part of education provides the only opportunity for all children to learn about physical movement and engage in physical activity.
As noted, its goal and place in institutionalized education have changed from the original focus on teaching hygiene and health to educating children about the many forms and benefits of physical movement, including sports and exercise. With a dramatic expansion of content beyond the original Swedish and German gymnastics programs of the 19th century, physical education has evolved to become a content. To understand physical education as a component of the education system, it is important to know that the education system in the United States does not operate with a centralized curriculum.
Physical education is influenced by this system, which leads to great diversity in policies and curricula. These expanded waiver and substitution policies discussed in greater detail later in the chapter increase the possibility that students will opt out of physical education for nonmedical reasons. Given that curricula are determined at the local level in the United States, encompassing national standards, state standards, and state-adopted textbooks that meet and are aligned with the standards, physical education is taught in many different forms and structures.
Various curriculum models are used in instruction, including movement education, sport education, and fitness education. In terms of engagement in physical activity, two perspectives are apparent. First, programs in which fitness education curricula are adopted are effective at increasing in-class physical activity Lonsdale et al. A paucity of nationally representative data is available with which to demonstrate the relationship between the actual level of physical activity in which students are engaged and the curriculum models adopted by their schools.
Movement has been a cornerstone of physical education since the s. Exemplary works and curriculum descriptions include those by Laban himself Laban, and others e. Over time, however, the approach shifted from concern with the inner attitude of the mover to a focus on the function and application of each movement Abels and Bridges, In the s, the intent of movement education was to apply four movement concepts to the three domains of learning i.
The four concepts were body representing the instrument of the action ; space where the body is moving ; effort the quality with which the movement is executed ; and relationships the connections that occur as the body moves—with objects, people, and the environment; Stevens-Smith, These standards emphasize the need for children to know basic movement concepts and be able to perform basic movement patterns. It is imperative for physical educators to foster motor success and to provide children with a basic skill set that builds their movement repertoire, thus allowing them to engage in various forms of games, sports, and other physical activities see also Chapter 3.
One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop Siedentop, ; Siedentop et al. The model entails a unique instructional structure featuring sport seasons that are used as the basis for planning and teaching instructional units. Students are organized into sport organizations teams and play multiple roles as team managers, coaches, captains, players, referees, statisticians, public relations staff, and others to mimic a professional sports organization.
Depending on the developmental level of students, the games are simplified or modified to encourage maximum participation. In competition, students play the roles noted above in addition to the role of players. A sport education unit thus is much longer than a conventional physical education unit. Siedentop and colleagues recommend 20 lessons per unit, so that all important curricular components of the model can be implemented. Findings from research on the sport education model have been reviewed twice.
In a more recent review, Hastie and colleagues report on emerging evidence suggesting that the model leads to improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness only one study and mixed evidence regarding motor skills development, increased feeling of enjoyment in participation in physical education, increased sense of affiliation with the team and physical education, and positive development of fair-play values. The only study on in-class physical activity using the model showed that it contributed to only Hastie and colleagues caution, however, that because only 6 of 38 studies reviewed used an experimental or quasi-experimental design, the findings must be interpreted with extreme caution.
Instead of focusing exclusively on having children move constantly to log activity time, a new curricular approach emphasizes teaching them the science behind why they need to be physically active in their lives. The curriculum is designed so that the children are engaged in physical activities that demonstrate relevant scientific knowledge. The goal is the development and maintenance of individual student fitness. The conceptual framework for the model is designed around the health-related components of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility.
A recent meta-analysis Lonsdale et al. Several concept-based fitness education curriculum models exist for both the middle school and senior high school levels. Get Fit! Activities in the curriculum are designed for health benefits, and the ultimate goal for the student is to develop a commitment to regular exercise and physical. It is assumed that all children can achieve a health-enhancing level of fitness through regular engagement in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
Randomized controlled studies on the impact of a science-based fitness curriculum in 15 elementary schools showed that, although the curriculum allocated substantial lesson time to learning cognitive knowledge, the students were more motivated to engage in physical activities than students in the 15 control schools experiencing traditional physical education Chen et al. Longitudinal data from the study reveal continued knowledge growth in the children that strengthened their understanding of the science behind exercise and active living Sun et al.
It is suggested that through this proposed comprehensive framework, fitness education be incorporated into the existing physical education curriculum and embedded in the content taught in all instructional units. Accordingly, fitness education in school physical education programs is being enhanced through the incorporation of active video games, also known as exergaming.
These active games have been incorporated into school wellness centers as high-tech methods of increasing student fitness levels to supplement the traditional modes for attaining vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity Greenberg and Stokes, Mean metabolic equivalent MET values for each game were comparable to or.
Technique: Demonstrate competency in techniques needed to perform a variety of moderate to vigorous physical activities. Knowledge: Demonstrate understanding of fitness concepts, principles, strategies, and individual differences needed to participate and maintain a health-enhancing level of fitness. Factors that influence physical activity choices. Physical activity: Participate regularly in fitness-enhancing physical activity. Health-related fitness: Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of health-related fitness.
Responsible personal and social behaviors: Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviors in physical activity settings. Nutrition: Strive to maintain healthy diet through knowledge, planning, and regular monitoring.
Consumerism: Access and evaluate fitness information, facilities, products, and services. Graf and colleagues , studying boys and girls aged , found that both Wii boxing and DDR level 2 elicited energy expenditure, heart rate, perceived exertion, and ventilatory responses that were comparable to or greater than those elicited by moderate-intensity walking on a treadmill.
Similar results were found by Lanningham-Foster and colleagues among 22 children aged and adults in that energy expenditure for both groups increased significantly when playing Wii over that expended during all sedentary activities.
Staiano and colleagues explored factors that motivated overweight and obese African American high school students to play Wii during school-based physical activity opportunities. Mellecker and McManus determined that energy expenditure and heart rate were greater during times of active play than in seated play. Fawkner and colleagues studied 20 high school—age girls and found that dance simulation games provided an opportunity for most subjects to achieve a moderate-intensity level of physical activity.
The authors conclude that regular use of the games aids in promoting health through physical activity. Haddock and colleagues conducted ergometer tests with children aged and found increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure above baseline determinations. Maddison and colleagues , studying children aged , found that active video game playing led to significant increases in energy expenditure, heart rate, and activity counts in comparison with baseline values.
They conclude that playing these games for short time periods is comparable to light- to moderate-intensity conventional modes of exercise, including walking, skipping, and jogging. Additionally, Sit and colleagues , studying the effects of active gaming among year-old children in Hong Kong, found the children to be significantly more physically active while playing interactive games compared with screen-based games.
Exergaming appears to increase acute physical activity among users and is being used in school settings because it is appealing to students. Further, results of studies conducted in nonlaboratory and nonschool settings have been mixed Baranowski et al. Moreover, any physical activity changes that do occur may not be sufficient to stimulate physiologic changes. For example, White and colleagues examined the effects. Although energy expenditure was raised above resting values during active gaming, the rise was not significant enough to qualify as part of the daily 60 minutes or more of vigorous-or moderate-intensity exercise recommended for children.
While collecting data on the effects of Nintendo Wii on year-olds in New Zealand, White and colleagues found that active video games generated higher energy expenditure than both resting and inactive screen watching.
Therefore, it may be helpful in reducing the amount of sedentary behavior, but it should not be used as a replacement for more conventional modes of physical activity. Sun found that active gaming can increase student motivation to engage in physical activity, but the motivation may decrease as a result of prolonged exposure to the same games. This study also found that exergaming lessons provided less physical activity for children than regular conventional physical education.
For inactive children, however, the exergaming environment is conducive to more active participation in the game-based physical activities than in conventional physical education Fogel et al. Finally, Sheehan and Katz found that among school-age children the use of active gaming added to postural stability, an important component of motor skills development. From the research cited above, as well as ongoing research being conducted by the Health Games Research Project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, active gaming is promising as a means of providing young children an opportunity to become more physically active and helping them meet the recommended 60 or more minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day.
Different types of games may influence energy expenditure differentially, and some may serve solely as motivation. Selected games also appear to hold greater promise for increasing energy expenditure, while others invite youth to be physically active through motivational engagement.
The dynamic and evolving field of active gaming is a promising area for future research as more opportunities arise to become physically active throughout the school environment. While several evidence-based physical education programs—such as the Coordinated Approach to Child Health CATCH and Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids SPARK —are being implemented in schools, many innovative programs also have been implemented nationwide that are motivating and contribute to skills attainment while engaging youth in activities that are fun and fitness oriented.
These programs include water sports, involving sailing, kayaking, swimming, canoeing, and paddle boarding; adventure activities such as Project Adventure; winter sports, such as. Instructional opportunities vary within and among school levels as a result of discrepancies in state policy mandates.
Although the time to be devoted to physical education e. With respect to content, in both elementary and secondary schools, physical activity is an assumed rather than an intended outcome except in the fitness education model. The goals of skill development and knowledge growth in physical education presumably are accomplished through participation in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
Data are lacking, however, to support the claim that physical activity offered to further the attainment of skills and knowledge is of vigorous or moderate intensity and is of sufficient duration for children to reap health benefits.
Research on physical education, physical activity, and sports opportunities in nontraditional school settings charter schools, home schools, and correctional facilities is extremely limited.
Identification of learning styles is one way of contributing to a more efficient teaching process, and it helps teachers choose an effective teaching strategy. This study reports a three-year process to explain the change in the learning styles of physical education students. It also involves an assessment of the overall academic achievement of physical education students based on their learning style preferences throughout this process. The results of the analysis showed that the curriculum of the PE teaching department did not lead to a change in the learning styles of students studying in this department. Additionally, the overall academic achievement of the physical education students did not vary for the first Semester 3 and second measurements Semester 5 based on their learning style preferences. However, for the third measurement Semester 7 , learning style preferences had differing effects on their academic achievement.
Regina Celia A. Silva 1. Vera Lucia de F. The objective of this article is to show, by analyzing the curricula of the professional formation in Physical Education, that it is possible the formation of teachers in Distance Learning Physical Education courses since the act of reflecting before, during and after the pedagogical practice characterizes the quality of contemporary educational development. A qualitative research; the present study consists of an analysis of curricula and Professional Training of Distance Learning in Physical Education, subsidized in bibliographic research. As the traditional teaching model prioritizes the selection of the most skilled in the search for the hero athlete, the pedagogical proposal based on reflection is more interesting since not all students will be or wish to be athletes.
Learning and Teaching in Physical Education
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. P hysical education is a formal content area of study in schools that is standards based and encompasses assessment based on standards and benchmarks. It is an avenue for engaging in developmentally appropriate physical activities designed for children to develop their fitness, gross motor skills, and health Sallis et al. This chapter 1 provides a perspective on physical education in the context of schooling; 2 elaborates on the importance of physical education to child development; 3 describes the consensus on the characteristics of quality physical education programs; 4 reviews current national, state, and local education policies that affect the quality of physical education; and 5 examines barriers to quality physical education and solutions for overcoming them.
А-а, Росио - прелестное создание.
К тому времени когда компьютер разгадает пароль и взломает шифр, информация, содержащаяся в послании, утратит всякую ценность. Оказавшись в условиях подлинного разведывательного затемнения, АНБ выпустило секретную директиву, одобренную президентом Соединенных Штатов. Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров.
У нас осталось всего восемь минут. Мы ищем число, а не произвольный набор букв. - Четыре умножить на шестнадцать, - спокойно сказал Дэвид. - Вспомни арифметику, Сьюзан. Сьюзан посмотрела на Беккера, наблюдавшего за ней с экрана.
Настаивал Нуматака. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует! - сказал Стратмор. - Что. - Не существует алгоритма, не поддающегося взлому. - Нет, существует.
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А потом вы отдали кольцо какой-то девушке. - Я же говорила. От этого кольца мне было не по. На девушке было много украшений, и я подумала, что ей это кольцо понравится. - А она не увидела в этом ничего странного.
Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры. Как-то вечером Хейл захватил свою клавиатуру домой и вставил в нее чип, регистрирующий все удары по клавишам. На следующее утро, придя пораньше, он подменил чужую клавиатуру на свою, модифицированную, а в конце дня вновь поменял их местами и просмотрел информацию, записанную чипом.
Стратмор прав. Это просто как день. Как они этого сразу не заметили.
Даже если файл Танкадо будет прочитан прямо сейчас, это все равно будет означать, что АНБ идет ко дну. С такими темпами шифровалка сумеет вскрывать не больше двух шифров в сутки. В то время как даже при нынешнем рекорде - сто пятьдесят вскрытых шифров в день - они не успевают расшифровывать всю перехватываемую информацию. - Танкадо звонил мне в прошлом месяце, - сказал Стратмор, прервав размышления Сьюзан.